A multicentre observational study of intra-operative ventilatory management during general anaesthesia: tidal volumes
and relation to body weight.
Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes
and positive end-expiratory pressure prevents pulmonary inflammation in patients without preexisting lung injury.
Intraoperative tidal volume
as a risk factor for respiratory failure after pneumonectomy.
Ventilation strategy using low tidal volumes
, recruitment maneuvers, and high positive end-expiratory pressure for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.
[15,16] A recent systematic review and meta-analysis concluded that apart from low tidal volumes
with Fi[O.sub.2]-guided high PEEP, prone ventilation is potentially the best adjunctive for ventilatory support in terms of improved survival in patients with moderate or severe ARDS.
Spontaneous breathing is usually not allowed during early phase of severe ARDS, mostly because these critically ill patients require protective ventilation (e.g., low tidal volume
, high positive end-expiratory pressure, and recruitment maneuver) .
In patients who require mechanical ventilation, conservative management of BPFs, such as a reduction (or elimination) of PEEP, effective tidal volume
, and respiratory rate, help reduce airway pressures in attempts to limit flow through the fistula, thus allowing it to heal.
Respective effects of high airway pressure, high tidal volume
, and positive endexpiratory pressure," The American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol.
Pressure control or pressure-regulated volume-controlled ventilation compared with volume-controlled ventilation, may deliver lower tidal volumes
than those programmed in high resistance situations, leading to hypoventilation;  therefore, volume-controlled modes should be considered in children with bronchiolitis.
During conventional ventilation, tidal volumes
exceed anatomical and equipment dead space and gas exchange is largely related to bulk flow of gas to the alveoli.
In SIMV, the physician sets the respiratory rate, tidal volume
and levels of pressure support (PS), positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and fractional inspired concentration of oxygen (Fi[O.sub.2]).