Comparing with the process to calculate these two indexes, more detailed information of masonry buildings are required for index [I.sub.sd], including mainly the detailed information of tie columns, tie beams, and floor slab.
(2) [[gamma].sub.hi] is the enhancement ratio of RC tie beam to masonry wall:
The analysis indicated that the application of anchored tie beams
caused the roof to initially move towards the working while later it was subject to compression.
Test results indicate that load capacity of mortise end-walls in tie beams
is related both to the wood strength perpendicular to the grain and to the wood shear strength parallel to the grain.
by 12 in.) adjacent to the tie beams
and knee braces.
Also of interest was the effect of intermediate tie beams
on deflections along with the effect of reinforcement of the wall plates with 3.5-inch-square beams (clamped at the ends and center to the inside faces of the wall plates) on ridge and wall plate deflections.
Fascinating architectural features are everywhere - some magnificent oak timber framing, a plaster relief ceiling in the Queen Anne dining room and the wonderful 14th century great hall, mentioned by Pevsner for "its splendid original open roof incorporating cambered tie beams
and king posts with foiled four way struts making pointed trefoil shapes with the foiled principals".
Four tie beams
span the room's width, connecting the beefed-up exterior wall to interior bearing walls.
Likewise, the sills are linked together at the mid-length points by the tenons of the wall studs supporting the tie beam
. If the sills are not fastened to a secure foundation, the floor joist tenons that frame into the sills on either side of the intermediate sill joint are pinned to the sills in order to provide resistance to lateral loading.