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see lumberlumber,
term for timber that has been cut into boards for use as a building material. The major steps in producing lumber involve logging (the felling and preparation of timber for shipment to sawmills), sawing the logs into boards, grading the boards according to defects and
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; woodwood,
botanically, the xylem tissue that forms the bulk of the stem of a woody plant. Xylem conducts sap upward from the roots to the leaves, stores food in the form of complex carbohydrates, and provides support; it is made up of various types of cells specialized for each of
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Uncut trees that are suitable for construction or conversion to lumber.



(wood grades), material obtained from trees that retains its natural physical structure and chemical composition. Timber may be rough or processed.

Rough timber is a product of the logging industry. It is obtained from sawn trees after the branches have been removed and the trunks crosscut into pieces of the required length. Since its cross section resembles a circle, the wood is called round timber. Round timber is used whole (after the bark has been stripped away) in the construction of industrial and residential buildings, as supports and poles for telephone and electrical transmission lines, as props in underground work (for example, mining), and as fences (pickets, rods). Round timber is the raw material for the sawing, plywood, match, packaging, paper-and-pulp, and wood-chemical industries.

The materials fashioned from round timber that retain their natural structure are classified as processed timber. Produced by the sawing and woodworking industries, they include lumber (beams, rods, crossties, boat and deck planks, and soundboards for musical instruments), split timber (parquet flooring and staves for barrels), and planed and hulled veneer.

Quality standards for timber are based on the intended purpose of the grades, the species of trees from which they are to be made, the dimensions of the grades and their division into varieties, and the limits of allowable flaws in the timber and of defects caused by processing.

Round timber is generally divided into softwoods and hardwoods without differentiation by species, which is specified only in rare cases—for example, soundboards are made only from spruce, and staves for wine casks only from oak. The length and thickness of timber vary considerably. The minimum dimensions are usually indicated for round timber; there are no maximum limits. Timber quality is determined by external appearance and, in the case of particularly important grades, by testing.


Lapirov-Skoblo, S. Ia. Lesnoe tovarovedenie, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1968.
Lesomaterialy kruglye: Sbornik standartov. Moscow, 1969.



Wood used for building, carpentry, or joinery.


1. Uncut trees or logs that are suitable for conversion to lumber.
2. Wood sawn into balks, battens, boards, etc., suitable for use in carpentry, joinery, and general construction.
3. Square-sawn lumber having: (US) a minimum dimension of 5 in.; (Brit.) approximately equal cross dimensions greater than 4 in. by 4 ½ in. (101.6 mm by 114.3 mm).
4. A heavy wooden beam used as a shoring or bracing system member.


a. wood, esp when regarded as a construction material
b. (as modifier): a timber cottage
a. trees collectively
b. Chiefly US woodland
3. Nautical a frame in a wooden vessel
References in periodicals archive ?
Since the 2009 recession, Oregon Department of Forestry records show Lane's County's timber harvest increasing 83 percent, from 338 million board feet to 620 million in 2013 - about 150,000 log truck loads.
8220;Many landowners mistakenly assume that managing timber through harvesting trees harms the environment,” explains Jim Griffith, registered forester.
One of the most appealing features of Timber Framed Construction homes is that they are by far the most environmentally friendly way to build.
Sayed Abdullah, a resident of Kunar, mentions the names of areas he knows where timber is still being cut down.
Walker timber has a varied stock range from ply to plasterboard, all sizes of planed and sawn timber, all sizes of floorboard, skirting board and architrave and of course everything you need to build a smart solid fence from the basic to the exotic.
The result is a strong, self-supporting timber structure with open living spaces, which are easy to heat and cool, and an abundance of energy-saving natural light.
Much of this increase can be attributed to a partnership formed with the Association of Consulting Foresters last spring," said Erik Kankainen, Timber Analyst at RISI.
Liverpool Timber is able to offer advice to any customers who aren't sure of the type of timber they require, or of the size or amount they will need.
Norsk Virke is Rorvik Timber's Norwegian timber supplier, and handles annually some 150,000 to 200,000 cubic metres of timber.
This book presupposes that advances in the use of timber are engineering led, which is surely correct.
And Derek Jones of the Welsh Centre for the Built Environment told an international conference in Slovenia that the timber industry needs to use the 'wow' factor if it wants to convert architects, builders, planners and the public away from bricks and mortar.
Although emphasis on producing merchantable timber remained paramount, advocates generated local interest with strategic appeals to recreational users.