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see lumberlumber,
term for timber that has been cut into boards for use as a building material. The major steps in producing lumber involve logging (the felling and preparation of timber for shipment to sawmills), sawing the logs into boards, grading the boards according to defects and
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; woodwood,
botanically, the xylem tissue that forms the bulk of the stem of a woody plant. Xylem conducts sap upward from the roots to the leaves, stores food in the form of complex carbohydrates, and provides support; it is made up of various types of cells specialized for each of
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Uncut trees that are suitable for construction or conversion to lumber.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(wood grades), material obtained from trees that retains its natural physical structure and chemical composition. Timber may be rough or processed.

Rough timber is a product of the logging industry. It is obtained from sawn trees after the branches have been removed and the trunks crosscut into pieces of the required length. Since its cross section resembles a circle, the wood is called round timber. Round timber is used whole (after the bark has been stripped away) in the construction of industrial and residential buildings, as supports and poles for telephone and electrical transmission lines, as props in underground work (for example, mining), and as fences (pickets, rods). Round timber is the raw material for the sawing, plywood, match, packaging, paper-and-pulp, and wood-chemical industries.

The materials fashioned from round timber that retain their natural structure are classified as processed timber. Produced by the sawing and woodworking industries, they include lumber (beams, rods, crossties, boat and deck planks, and soundboards for musical instruments), split timber (parquet flooring and staves for barrels), and planed and hulled veneer.

Quality standards for timber are based on the intended purpose of the grades, the species of trees from which they are to be made, the dimensions of the grades and their division into varieties, and the limits of allowable flaws in the timber and of defects caused by processing.

Round timber is generally divided into softwoods and hardwoods without differentiation by species, which is specified only in rare cases—for example, soundboards are made only from spruce, and staves for wine casks only from oak. The length and thickness of timber vary considerably. The minimum dimensions are usually indicated for round timber; there are no maximum limits. Timber quality is determined by external appearance and, in the case of particularly important grades, by testing.


Lapirov-Skoblo, S. Ia. Lesnoe tovarovedenie, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1968.
Lesomaterialy kruglye: Sbornik standartov. Moscow, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Wood used for building, carpentry, or joinery.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. Uncut trees or logs that are suitable for conversion to lumber.
2. Wood sawn into balks, battens, boards, etc., suitable for use in carpentry, joinery, and general construction.
3. Square-sawn lumber having: (US) a minimum dimension of 5 in.; (Brit.) approximately equal cross dimensions greater than 4 in. by 4 ½ in. (101.6 mm by 114.3 mm).
4. A heavy wooden beam used as a shoring or bracing system member.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


a. wood, esp when regarded as a construction material
b. (as modifier): a timber cottage
a. trees collectively
b. Chiefly US woodland
3. Nautical a frame in a wooden vessel
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
'Whenever there is an offence involving timber, the Military Police must crack down on it,' he said.
Talking to media Javed Arshad said drive would continue against illegal cutting of forests and timber smuggling and would not spare anybody whoever is involved in the practice.
Since 2002 there has been almost no timber harvesting from this forest, but recently the agency has resumed selling a few small timber sales.
Earlier this year WWF launched the Timber Scorecard, which assessed 128 UK retailers, manufacturers and traders that buy timber and timber products on their publicly available timber buying policies.
The idea came because the club were owned by a timber company and, in a bid to liven up the crowd, Jim asked if he could bring a chainsaw to the matches.
The timber trade sectors covered by the TTBS charity criteria includes companies engaged in the trading and distribution of wood-based products, such as timber importers and agencies, timber merchants, timber-based sheet material importers and merchants and, more recently, Trussed Rafter Association fabricator member companies and accredited timber preservative processing companies with employees involved with treatment of bulk timbers for the above end users.
It's no wonder many of us are concerned about the increasing volume of timber being logged from our watersheds; how our water, wildlife, fisheries, recreation and quality of life are affected; where the timber goes and who mills it; how the profits get shared; and who gets taxed and who doesn't.
Timber Update overcomes these challenges by providing free educational services and connecting landowners with the most reputable timber companies the industry has to offer.
As the UK Timber Frame Association (www.timber-frame.org) puts it: "There are many good reasons why timber frame is the fastest growing method of construction in the UK.
Decisions made today about timber harvesting will have a long-lasting impact.
Officials had announced the timber could be taken away only between August 16, 2010 and May 15, 2011.
Sustainable timber is timber that has been harvested in an ecologically responsible way.