Time Study

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

time study

[′tīm ‚stəd·ē]
(industrial engineering)
A work measurement technique, generally using a stopwatch or other timing device, to record the actual elapsed time for performance of a task, adjusted for any observed variance from normal effort or pace, unavoidable or machine delays, rest periods, and personal needs.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Time Study


a technique of studying the time spent in the performance of recurrent elements of work operations through measurement of the actual elapsed time and analysis of the conditions under which the work is carried out. The individual elements may be manual tasks or may involve the operation of a machine.

In the USSR, time studies are used to establish standard durations for work operations, to derive time rates, and to study the methods and procedures of outstanding workers. They help reveal the reasons for workers’ failure to meet standard time rates and to make maximally efficient use of machines. In the case of operation of several machines by a single worker, time studies provide the necessary initial data for calculating the optimal sequence of tasks and the standard times required for each task. Time studies also help reveal ways of reducing the time required by individual operations.

A time study is conducted in three stages: (1) preparation for observation and breakdown of the operation or job being studied into its component elements; (2) observation of the performance of the elements in their sequential order, including measurement of the times elapsed in carrying them out; and (3) analysis of the observation results, selection of the most efficiently performed elements, and calculation of a normal time for the carrying out of each element. Time studies are made with a split-second watch or other instrument. Time study observations are generally carried out by the current time, sampling, or cyclic methods.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
A DOS-based handheld time study system was developed with the advantages of the ability to modify the time design "on the fly" and the economy of keystrokes (Howard and Gasson 1991).
An automated time study of felling and skidding was developed by McDonald and others (McDonald and Rummer 2000, McDonald 1999).
Computer-Integrated Time Study (CITS) has been developed by C-Four to assist industrial engineering time study (www.c-four.com).
Develop a haudheld time study system with MS Windows-based graphical user interface (GUI) for timber harvesting operations.
Evaluate the performance of the handheld time study system with field tests.
Some of the variable factors that will significantly affect a time study result are: selection of the worker to be studied; conditions under which the work is performed during the study; the manner in which the operation is broken down into parts or elements; the method of reading the stopwatch; the duration of the time study (the worker may get fatigued in an extended study); rating of the worker's performance, which is a common adjustment in time studies, from observed time to "normal" time; the amount of allowance made for personal needs, fatigue, and delay; how the allowance is applied; and the method of computing the time standard for the job from the time data.
Figure III shows a sample of 20 readings that might be found for the same time study and gives the standard deviation.
For a revised service plan, another time study is completed as the services are delivered during the first week.
Importantly, the actual service times and additional billing amount based on the time study are discussed with the family or resident, thus paving the way for consensus before the billing statement is received.
If you are on benefits you may wish to seek advice as to whether these would be affected if you were to return to full time study.
Increased globalisation and changing lifestyles has led to schools offering more flexible ways of learning either via distance learning or part - time study.