The GPS timing signal
is essential to the functioning of cellular networks, the power grid, financial markets, military systems, the internet and even medical devices.
The energy detector produced an energy signal that was analyzed by a charge-integrating analog-to-digital converter (QDC) and a timing signal
used to produce an event trigger.
On about one-third of the trials, the researchers switched the timing signals
for upcoming pain amounts so that volunteers received heat pulses that were either of higher or lower intensity than they expected.
Optical transmission signals allow highly precise timing signals
to be distributed throughout an electrically noisy environment with no interference.
Moreover, by timing signals
from the binary pulsar over many years, physicists have further verified aspects of Einstein's theory of general relativity.