Reaction

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reaction

1. opposition to change, esp political change, or a desire to return to a former condition or system
2. a response indicating a person's feelings or emotional attitude
3. Med
a. any effect produced by the action of a drug, esp an adverse effect
b. any effect produced by a substance (allergen) to which a person is allergic the simultaneous equal and opposite force that acts on a body whenever it exerts a force on another body

Reaction

 

in the political sense, resistance to social progress; a political regime established to maintain and strengthen an outmoded social order. Reaction usually manifests itself in the struggle against the revolutionary movement, in the suppression of democratic rights and liberties, in the persecution of progressive political, public, and cultural figures, in mass terror and violence, in racial and national discrimination, and in an aggressive foreign policy. Reaction in its extreme form is fascism.

A reactionary is an adherent of political reaction, a retrograde person, an enemy of social, cultural, and scientific progress.


Reaction

 

in psychology, a behavioral act that takes place in response to a certain stimulus; a voluntary movement that takes place in response to a signal and is influenced by the subject’s idea of the task to be performed. It became necessary to investigate voluntary reaction after it was discovered that astronomers attempting to note the moment a star passed through a meridian were giving different figures. F. Bessel, who discovered this phenomenon, conducted an experiment in 1823 to measure reaction times of human beings to stimuli. The measurement of speed, intensity, and course of reactions created psychometrics as a branch of psychology with a special method of investigation—the method of reaction. Pioneers in this field included F. Donders of Denmark and W. Wundt, L. Lange, and N. N. Lange. Reaction was also studied by the Soviet psychologist K. N. Kornilov, the founder of reactology.

There are two basic types of reactions: simple and complex. In a simple reaction, a person quickly responds with a movement (motor and sensory reaction) to a single prearranged signal. In a complex reaction, when various signals are randomly given, a person responds to only one of them (discrimination reaction) or to all of them, but with various movements (choice reaction). The study of reaction has made it possible to formulate a number of principles of applied psychology, such as Hick’s law, which states that reaction time increases with an increase in the number of stimuli presented for discrimination.

REFERENCES

Wundt, W. Osnovy fiziologicheskoi psikhologii, fascs. 1–16. St. Petersburg, 1908–14.
Inzhenernaia psikhologiia za rubezhom. Moscow, 1967. Pages 408–24. (Collection of articles translated from English.)
See also references under .

V. I. MAKSIMENKO

reaction

[rē′ak·shən]
(control systems)
(mechanics)
The equal and opposite force which results when a force is exerted on a body, according to Newton's third law of motion.
(nuclear physics)
References in periodicals archive ?
However, in the case of oral lichenoid tissue reactions such as allergic contact stomatitis, in oral lupus erythematosus or in classical lichen planus, the clinical pictures may be similar despite different pathogenic mechanisms.
Recent studies are also indicative of the active role of endothelial cells in immunologic tissue reactions [17].
The comparative tissue reaction of two strains of Australorbis glabratus to infection with Schistosoma mansoni.
Mantle pathologies in bivalves are mainly described in cases of free metacercariae infection in extrapallila cavity, where metaplasia and hyperplasia are common tissue reactions, with resulting lysis of mantle epithelium.
The concern is that tissue reactions in rodents are seen with many materials, may be nonspecific, and may not occur in humans.
If placed in the ear a spontaneous leakage of alkaline electrolyte solution produces a low-voltage direct-current burn causing a tissue reaction within a few hours of impaction.
The lichenoid tissue reaction. Int J Dermatol 1982; 21:203-206.
Although foreign body giant cell reaction was not discovered, a mild tissue reaction in the form of fibrosis and a lymphocytic cell infiltration were reported.
* It should excite least tissue reaction and should not create a situation favourable for bacterial growth.
[5] Topolnitskiy EB, Dambaev GTs, Hodorenko VN, Fomina TI, Shefer NA, Gunther VE, Tissue reaction to a titanium-nickelide mesh implant after plasty of postresection defects of anatomic structures of the chest, Bull Exp Biol Med, 2012;153(3):385-388,
Histopathological examination of uterine biopsy samples did not reveal any adverse tissue reaction. Partial desquamation of epithelium observed in tissue sections could be effect of process of biopsy collection.
(9) When a vicryl suture is used for the closure of conjunctiva in humans after pterygium surgery, it may cause a mild foreign body granulation tissue reaction from days 15 to 45 after surgery.5 Management of the foreign body reaction consists of the removal of the foreign body.