titration

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titration

(tītrā`shən), gradual addition of an acidic solutionsolution,
in chemistry, homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The dissolving medium is called the solvent, and the dissolved material is called the solute. A solution is distinct from a colloid or a suspension.
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 to a basic solution or vice versa (see acids and basesacids and bases,
two related classes of chemicals; the members of each class have a number of common properties when dissolved in a solvent, usually water. Properties
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); titrations are used to determine the concentrationconcentration,
in chemistry, measure of the relative proportions of two or more quantities in a mixture. The concentration of a solute is very important in studying chemical reactions because it determines how often molecules collide in solution and thus indirectly determines
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 of acids or bases in solution. For example, a given volume of a solution of unknown acidity may be titrated with a base of known concentration until complete neutralizationneutralization,
chemical reaction, according to the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases, in which a water solution of acid is mixed with a water solution of base to form a salt and water; this reaction is complete only if the resulting solution has neither acidic nor basic
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 has occurred. This point is called the equivalence point and is generally determined by observing a color change in an added indicator such as phenolphthalein. From the volume and concentration of added base and the volume of acid solution, the unknown concentration of the solution before titration can be determined. Titrations can also be used to determine the number of acidic or basic groups in an unknown compound. A specific weight of the compound is titrated with a known concentration of acid or base until the equivalence point has been reached. From the volume and concentration of added acid or base and the initial weight of the compound, the equivalent weightequivalent weight.
The equivalent weight of an element or radical is equal to its atomic weight or formula weight divided by the valence it assumes in compounds. The unit of equivalent weight is the atomic mass unit; the amount of a substance in grams numerically equal to the
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, and thus the number of acidic or basic groups, can be computed. Instead of adding an indicator to observe the equivalence point, one can construct a graph on which the pH (see separate article) at regular intervals is plotted along one axis and the number of moles of added acid or base at these intervals along the other axis; such a plot is called a titration curve and is usually sigmoid (S-shaped), with the inflection point, where the curve changes direction, corresponding to the equivalence point. From the pH at the equivalence point, the dissociation constant of the acidic or basic group can be determined (see chemical equilibriumchemical equilibrium,
state of balance in which two opposing reversible chemical reactions proceed at constant equal rates with no net change in the system. For example, when hydrogen gas, H2, and iodine gas, I2
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). If a compound contains several different acidic or basic groups, the titration curve will show several sigmoid-shaped curves like steps and the dissociation constant of each group can be obtained from the pH at its corresponding equivalence point.

Titration

 

a method of volumetric analysis that involves the gradual addition of a solution of a known concentration (standard solution) to the solution being analyzed (the analyte) in order to determine the concentration of the analyte. Burettes are used to measure the volume of the solution added. The end point of titration is usually found by means of chemical indicators or through the use of instruments.

titration

[ti′trā·shən]
(analytical chemistry)
A method of analyzing the composition of a solution by adding known amounts of a standardized solution until a given reaction (color change, precipitation, or conductivity change) is produced.

titration

an operation, used in volumetric analysis, in which a measured amount of one solution is added to a known quantity of another solution until the reaction between the two is complete. If the concentration of one solution is known, that of the other can be calculated
References in periodicals archive ?
2] was produced from a 10 g soil sample if it required 5 mL of 1 N HCl to titrate a base trap containing 10 mL of 2 N NaOH and 19 mL of 1 N HCl to titrate a control with and equal volume of 2 N NaOH?
Initiate cyproheptadine at 4 mg/d, titrate every 2 or 3 days, and monitor for sedation, confusion, or reduced efficacy of concurrent serotonergic medications.
The goal in the BNP group was to titrate doses of ACE inhibitors, [beta]-blockers, and diuretics until the plasma BNP dropped below 100 pg/mL.
Clinicians had the flexibility to titrate further for tolerability, and after 12 months the mean doses were 582 mg for carbamazepine, 1,614 mg for gabapentin, and 152 mg for lamotrigine.
Prescribe fluoxetine, 20 mg/d, and titrate to 90 mg/d
Use of a pulmonary artery catheter to titrate therapy aimed at lowering pulmonary capillary wedge pressure didn't affect the primary end points of mortality or days hospitalized during the next 6 months, compared with therapy guided solely by clinical assessment, in the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE), Lynne W.
The key study finding was that in the most recent 270 patients--those in whom ICE was used both to guide circular catheter placement and to titrate radiofrequency energy delivery via microbubble monitoring--there hasn't been a single case of severe pulmonary vein stenosis (Circulation 108[25]:3102-07, 2003).
In turn, this base titrates the hydroxyethylcarbamic acid and causes the pH of the solution to gradually return to its initial state.
said she typically starts children at 1-5 mg of melatonin and titrates up to as much as 8-10 mg in adolescents.