titration

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titration

(tītrā`shən), gradual addition of an acidic solutionsolution,
in chemistry, homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The dissolving medium is called the solvent, and the dissolved material is called the solute. A solution is distinct from a colloid or a suspension.
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 to a basic solution or vice versa (see acids and basesacids and bases,
two related classes of chemicals; the members of each class have a number of common properties when dissolved in a solvent, usually water. Properties
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); titrations are used to determine the concentrationconcentration,
in chemistry, measure of the relative proportions of two or more quantities in a mixture. The concentration of a solute is very important in studying chemical reactions because it determines how often molecules collide in solution and thus indirectly determines
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 of acids or bases in solution. For example, a given volume of a solution of unknown acidity may be titrated with a base of known concentration until complete neutralizationneutralization,
chemical reaction, according to the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases, in which a water solution of acid is mixed with a water solution of base to form a salt and water; this reaction is complete only if the resulting solution has neither acidic nor basic
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 has occurred. This point is called the equivalence point and is generally determined by observing a color change in an added indicator such as phenolphthalein. From the volume and concentration of added base and the volume of acid solution, the unknown concentration of the solution before titration can be determined. Titrations can also be used to determine the number of acidic or basic groups in an unknown compound. A specific weight of the compound is titrated with a known concentration of acid or base until the equivalence point has been reached. From the volume and concentration of added acid or base and the initial weight of the compound, the equivalent weightequivalent weight.
The equivalent weight of an element or radical is equal to its atomic weight or formula weight divided by the valence it assumes in compounds. The unit of equivalent weight is the atomic mass unit; the amount of a substance in grams numerically equal to the
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, and thus the number of acidic or basic groups, can be computed. Instead of adding an indicator to observe the equivalence point, one can construct a graph on which the pH (see separate article) at regular intervals is plotted along one axis and the number of moles of added acid or base at these intervals along the other axis; such a plot is called a titration curve and is usually sigmoid (S-shaped), with the inflection point, where the curve changes direction, corresponding to the equivalence point. From the pH at the equivalence point, the dissociation constant of the acidic or basic group can be determined (see chemical equilibriumchemical equilibrium,
state of balance in which two opposing reversible chemical reactions proceed at constant equal rates with no net change in the system. For example, when hydrogen gas, H2, and iodine gas, I2
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). If a compound contains several different acidic or basic groups, the titration curve will show several sigmoid-shaped curves like steps and the dissociation constant of each group can be obtained from the pH at its corresponding equivalence point.

Titration

 

a method of volumetric analysis that involves the gradual addition of a solution of a known concentration (standard solution) to the solution being analyzed (the analyte) in order to determine the concentration of the analyte. Burettes are used to measure the volume of the solution added. The end point of titration is usually found by means of chemical indicators or through the use of instruments.

titration

[ti′trā·shən]
(analytical chemistry)
A method of analyzing the composition of a solution by adding known amounts of a standardized solution until a given reaction (color change, precipitation, or conductivity change) is produced.

titration

an operation, used in volumetric analysis, in which a measured amount of one solution is added to a known quantity of another solution until the reaction between the two is complete. If the concentration of one solution is known, that of the other can be calculated
References in periodicals archive ?
sativa seed oil and commercial oils were determined by titrimetric method (AOCS Official Method Ca-5a-40, 1989) [10].
The calcium carbonate contents were determined by simple titrimetric method [38], where finely ground soil and biochar samples (2.0g) were reacted with 2M HCl for 16h.
Owing to these advantages, JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) has established this reagent as a standard substance for titrimetric analysis and the British Analytical Methods Committee as well as IUPAC has also recommended the acid [2].
Organic carbon (OC) was determined by wet combustion, giving potassium dichromate ([K.sub.2][Cr.sub.2][O.sub.7]) and sulfuric acid ([H.sub.2]S[O.sub.4]) to the soil samples for titrimetric measurements [35] with Milton Roy spectral photometer C301.
Due to the poor selectivity of the titrimetric and spectrophotometric assay methods and the insufficient precision of the selective HPLC method, none of these methods can be considered to fulfill this requirement.
Ascorbic acid was determined according to the titrimetric method using 2.6-dichlorophenol-indophenol dye [11].
Hughes, "Titrimetric determination of ascorbic acid with 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol in commercial liquid diets," Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol.
Chapters then cover common methodologies, including gravimetric and titrimetric analysis, calculations in instrumental analysis, several types of spectroscopy, chromatography and electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, electroanalytical techniques, and a chapter of miscellaneous techniques.
The amount of free formaldehyde that passes from resin solution and from stabilised soil into the air and water media was determined using the titrimetric method developed by the author, which is based on the interaction of formaldehyde with a neutral solution of sodium sulfite, as a result of which a formaldehyde-bisulfite addition compound is formed with the release of an equivalent amount of free sodium hydroxide.
31 collects representative titrimetric methods widely used and approved in the F& B industry providing a valuable aid for the development and implementation of titration methods.
The complex of 1,10-phenanthroline with Fe(II) has been widely used in titrimetric analysis as a redox indicator and also for determining higher concentrations of iron.