These may appear just below the terminal inflorescence, and/or be produced by basal nodes which increase the number of axes bearing inflorescences (Vegetti, 1999; Perreta et al., 2009; Tivano et al., 2009).
However, there are some cases where a very small terminal inflorescences (one or a few spikelets) is present but without a conspicuous development of trophotagma enrichment axes, such as in species of Aciachne (Vegetti & Tivano, 1991) (Fig.
1) may consist of many spikelets arranged in a complex branching system, or a few spikelets or even a single spikelet (Haines & Lye, 1983, Vegetti & Tivano, 1991a; Vegetti, 1992, 1994, 2002, 2003; Heinzen & Vegetti, 1994; Goetghebeur, 1998; Browning & Gordon-Gray, 1999; Camelbeke, 2002; Guarise & Vegetti, 2007; Ahumada & Vegetti, 2009; Reutemann et al., 2009, 2012, 2014a, 2014b; Guarise et al., 2012; Lucero & Vegetti, 2012; Lucero et al., 2014; Dellaferrera & Vegetti, 2015).
In order to distinguish branches of various complexity, the terms long and short paracladia (=long and short branches) were applied by Vegetti & Tivano, 1991b as they had been previously used for Dicotyledonous families by Troll (1965) and Weberling (1989).
Microhairs are found in leaf blades (Tateoka et al., 1959; Metcalfe, 1960; Somaru et al., 2002; Tivano, 2011), leaf sheaths (Somaru et al., 2002; Tivano, 2011), lemmas, paleas and lodicules (Tateoka & Takaji, 1967; Tateoka, 1976; Scholz, 1979; Terrel & Wergin, 1981; Liu et al., 2010; Tivano, 2011), culms (Arriaga, 1992; Tivano, 2011), inflorescence peduncles and inflorescence rachises (Tivano, 2011).
(Tateoka et al., 1959; Stewart, 1964; Tivano, 2011) and also in Amphipogon R.
& Goetghebeur, 1979; Vegetti & Tivano
, 1991; Vegetti, 1992;
For a proper interpretation of the inflorescence, it is important to know the inflorescence ramification pattern (Haines, 1966; Meert & Goetghebeur, 1979; Vegetti & Tivano, 1991) and the branch position in the inflorescences (Guarise & Vegetti, 2007).
In Cyperaceae, pseudolateral inflorescences evolve independently more than once and can occur in isolation, as in the Cyperus genera (Heinzen & Vegetti, 1994; Guaglianone, 1996), or be a feature for all the species belonging to a genera, as in Schoenoplectus (Vegetti & Tivano, 1991; Vegetti, 1992) and Isolepis (Vegetti, 1994).
I D-J) Camara Hernandez & Rua, 1992; Vegetti & Tivano, 1991; Vegetti, 1991, 1992, 1993a, 1997a, b, 1999; Rua, 1993; Rua & Boccaloni, 1996; Rua & Weberling, 1998; Vegetti & Weberling, 1996).
Homogenization processes have been described in many genera of Panicoideae (Vegetti & Tivano, 1991; Camara Hernandez & Rua, 1992; Rua, 1993, 1996; Vegetti, 1994, 1999; Vegetti & Anton, 1995, 2000; Rua & Weberling, 1998; Camara Hernandez, 2001; Pensiero & Vegetti, 2001; Reinheimer, 2007; Reinheimer & Vegetti, 2008) and Chloridoideae (Vegetti 1986; Camara Hernandez & Rua, 1992; Vegetti & Anton, 1995, 2000; Gasser & Vegetti, 1997; Perreta & Vegetti, 1998; Liu et al., 2005).