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1. In formwork, a horizontal member which is supported by hangers or by upright posts and carries joists.
2. A horizontal member which is housed in the studs of balloon framing and carries joists.
3. In scaffolding, one of the horizontal members fastened to uprights which support the put-logs and which are at right angles to the wall; they carry the boards on which the workmen stand.
4. A flat slab of stone, such as that laid horizontally over a grave.