Freight rail accounts for about one-third of the ton-miles
and consumes only about 2 percent of the transportation energy in the U.S.
Working from these assessments, and calculating on the basis of the 2.1 billion ton-miles
that California's perishable produce exports traveled by rail in 2013, we estimated that rail travel saved the public approximately $19 million by reducing four negative impacts: pavement damage, greenhouse-gas emissions, other polluting emissions and crashes.
Reportedly, a significant increase in trade volumes could be seen following on the lifting of US sanctions in January 2016, with a seasonal pattern in ton-mile
exports post January 2016, with total volumes rising in the autumn months in preparation for higher winter demand.
Over the last four decades total seaborne trade estimates have quadrupled, from just over 8 thousand billion ton-miles
in 1968 to over 32 thousand billion ton-miles
The transportation of sand, freshwater, and flowback water associated with HF results in 2,718,089 ton-miles
on average per HF well.
As Table 5 shows, typical release volumes on rail, particularly of petroleum products, are relatively low at 3,504 gallons per billion ton-miles
. While it outperforms road in terms of product release per ton-mile
, pipeline transport of petroleum products still experienced product release of 11,286 gallons per billion ton-miles
While in 2008 115.86 gallons of oil were spilled per million ton-miles
, due to a Minnesota derailment in which a 26,000 gallon oil car was ruptured, the average for the other ten years was only .584 gallons per million ton-miles
for railroads verses 5.99 gallons per million ton-miles
for oil pipelines.
By the peak year of 2006, intermodal traffic was about 6 percent of the ton-miles
, accounting for more than one-third of the car loadings and more than one-sixth of the railroads' revenues.
January cargo revenue ton-miles
were up 14 percent (2 percent domestically and 27 percent internationally).
Soaring railroad ton-miles
per worker-hour in the 1940s and 1950s occurred at the time that the industry was replacing steam with diesel locomotives.
Over the last four decades, total seaborne trade has more than quadrupled, from less than 6 thousand billion ton-miles
in 1995 to over 27 thousand billion ton-miles
in 2004 and continues to grow steadily.
"However, traffic volume for the industry at 15.3 billion ton-miles
, and the number of shipments moving through the major express companies at 6.858 million per day, have not changed appreciably since reaching a peak in 2000," ACMG Project Director Robert Dahl said.