Toneme


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Toneme

 

in linguistics, a feature of pitch that is linguistically significant, that is, that can distinguish otherwise identical lexical and grammatical forms. A toneme is the smallest tonal unit of a suprasegmental level to which the concepts of phoneme and morpheme correspond on other levels. Both the toneme and phoneme constitute an aggregate of distinctive features associated with pitch and intonation. In descriptive linguistics a toneme is also called a tonal phoneme.

References in periodicals archive ?
(2) *-X [??] (B): The (B) toneme is a trace of the morphophonological affix X.
(3) *-S [??] (C): The (C) toneme is a trace of the morphophonological affix S.
Three Sino-Finnic toneme correspondences are demonstrated in Tables 5, 6, and 7.
(1) a morpheme with a short [V.sub.1] and without any morphophonological affix is classified as the (A) toneme;
The approximate pitch difference between the tonemes when realised on the same or different registers is illustrated in Figure 24 below.
As can be expected, when two identical tonemes are placed adjacent to one another they merge in response to the Obligatory Contour Principle (OCP).
Tonemes are pitch-glides on certain syllables or from one syllable to the next in spoken language.
A striking characteristic of spoken Danish is the distinctive "st[??]d" (often referred to as a glottal stop), a feature which is supposed to have developed as a replacement for tonemes. This distinctive feature differentiates the meaning between two words that are otherwise the same in pronunciation; the meaning of these words is indicated by the presence or absence of the "st[??]d." An example of this would be the words <far> (father) and <far!> (the imperative form of the verb <fare> (go!)); the first word does not utilize the "st[??]d" but the second does.
While there is no need to indicate the tonemes or "st[??]d" in an IPA translation, word stress is marked.
1944, Chronemes and Tonemes. A Contribution to the Theory of Phonemes.--Acta Linguistica IV, 1-10.
1991, Syllable Tonemes in Latvian.--Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences.
1991, Syllable Tonemes in Latvian.--Proceedings of the XIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, August 19-24, 1991, Aix-en-Provence, France, Volume 2/5, 242-245.