There were no significant differences in latencies to the onset of myoclonic and clonic seizures and the percentage of the animals showing tonic seizure
and death between the water and olive oil groups.
The aqueous extract of inflorescences significantly delayed only the presence of tonic seizures
at doses of 300 mg/kg (19.89 [+ or -] 4.54 min) and 600 mg/kg (27.51 [+ or -] 2.49 min) (Figure 2(c)).
This phase lasted for about 1-2 minutes, was regarded as a tonic seizures
. Then, suddenly mouse suffered from successive involuntary high frequency vibration that was clearly visible at this stage, especially when compared with mice that had received the carrier.
nobilis nt nt Data represent percentage of tonic seizures
and mortality (n=10) * -P <0.001 for phenytoin and ethosuximide compared to saline, and for L.
were observed in 17% of people with MS in a Japanese study in 1974. Since that time, painful tonic seizures
have been well described.
In spite of the fact that in routine clinical practice, focal seizures may well be observed in generalized seizures and secondary generalized seizures are not infrequent in focal epilepsies (as the occurrence of automatisms or bilateral asymmetrical tonic seizures
in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy [JME]), the elimination of generalized/focal distinction, not for the epileptic seizures but for the epilepsies, has been widely criticized by several authors on the grounds that no sufficient scientific evidence was existent for such a radical change (11,12,13,14,15,16,17).
One type, generalized seizures, includes generalized tonic-clonic seizures (formerly called "grand mal" seizures), tonic seizures
, atonic seizures, or absence seizures (formerly called "petit mal" seizures).
In this study, Primphos cause clonic and tonic seizures
, and ultimately death.
leonurus extract in the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively protected 37.5% and 50% of animals used and significantly (p <0.05; Student's t-test) delayed pentylenetetrazole (90 mg/kg)-induced tonic seizures
. Similarly, the same doses of L.
In summary, this study showed that verapamil (voltage-dependent calcium channel antagonist type L) decreased clonic and tonic seizures
from Primphos in mice is probably the main mechanism anticonvulsant related to block calcium channels and reduce calcium flow within neurons.