tonic

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Related to tonic-clonic: grand mal seizure, Clonic seizure

tonic,

in music: see harmonyharmony,
in music, simultaneous sounding of two or more tones and, especially, the study of chords and their relations. Harmony was the last in the development of what may be considered the basic elements of modern music—harmony, melody, rhythm, and tone quality or timbre.
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; keykey.
1 In music, term used to indicate the scale from which the tonal material of a given composition is derived. To say, for example, that a composition is in the key of C major means that it uses as its basic tonal material the tones of that scale which is associated
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; scalescale,
in music, any series of tones arranged in a step-by-step rising or falling order of pitch. A scale defines the interval relationship of each tone to the others upon which the composition depends.
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; tonalitytonality
, in music, quality by which all tones of a composition are heard in relation to a central tone called the keynote or tonic. In music that has harmony the terms key and tonality
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.

Tonic

 

any of a class of medicinal agents that stimulate the central nervous system, blood circulation, and respiration. In cases of mental and physical fatigue, functioning capacity is increased by the administration of tonics—for example, preparations of ginseng, magnolia vine, pantocrine, or strychnine.


Tonic

 

in music, the chief, fundamental note of a key or tonality. In reference to melody, the tonic is a note and is related to the final of the Gregorian chant. In major and minor tonal systems it is a major or minor consonant triad. In 20th-century music dissonant chords may also function as a tonic, as in Scriabin’s use of a complex tonic in his later work. The tonic is the defining note of its corresponding tonality: the functions of notes and chords are determined by their pitch relationships to the tonic. The predominance of the tonic may also be reflected in rhythm and meter; classical composers of the Viennese school, for example, assigned maximum stress to the tonic by means of metrical accents and the placement of tonic chords at crucial points in the musical structure. The tonic of a mode is the most important element in determining that mode’s expressive character, for example, its major or minor nature.

IU. N. KHOLOPOV

tonic

1. a medicinal preparation intended to improve and strengthen the functioning of the body or increase the feeling of wellbeing
2. Music
a. the first degree of a major or minor scale and the tonal centre of a piece composed in a particular key
b. a key or chord based on this
3. Music of or relating to the first degree of a major or minor scale
4. of or denoting the general effect of colour and light and shade in a picture
5. Physiol of, relating to, characterized by, or affecting normal muscular or bodily tone
References in periodicals archive ?
15) describe the case of a tonic-clonic seizure-induced burst fracture in a 35 year old male who initially presented with mild paraspinal pain and a normal neurological exam.
6 Total 91 100 Table 2: Specific diagnosis of epilepsy Class of seizure Specific Diagnosis Patients Patients Number Percentage Generalized Tonic-clonic 53 58.
First line for treatment of partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in developing countries because of its low cost and ability to administer once daily
Guaifenesin at the doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg protected 50 and 90% of the animals against PTZ-induced tonic-clonic seizure and 37.
During this period she had seven further episodes of tonic-clonic seizures despite being on sedation.
Stimulus which just about produces a generalised tonic-clonic seizure may not ensure therapeutic potency, but the degree to which the stimulus intensity exceeds the Seizure Threshold is an important determinant of the therapeutic effectiveness.
Across the studies, statistically significant risk factors for sudden unexplained death in epilepsy were a high number of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, poly-antiepileptic drug therapy, high seizure frequency, and young age at epilepsy onset," she said.
The most common type of generalized seizure is the tonic-clonic seizure.
The purpose of this report is to describe a case in which new-onset tonic-clonic seizures occurred following an unintentional durotomy during lumbar discectomy and to discuss the importance of our findings in relation to the possible pathophysiological mechanisms.
Up to 40% of adolescent syncope associated with Gardasil is also accompanied by tonic-clonic seizure-like activity, FDA said.
A tonic-clonic seizure is a generalized seizure at its worst.
The onset of tonic-clonic convulsion and the number of animals convulsing or not convulsing within the observation period were noted.