tonic

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Related to tonic-clonic: grand mal seizure, Clonic seizure

tonic,

in music: see harmonyharmony,
in music, simultaneous sounding of two or more tones and, especially, the study of chords and their relations. Harmony was the last in the development of what may be considered the basic elements of modern music—harmony, melody, rhythm, and tone quality or timbre.
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; keykey.
1 In music, term used to indicate the scale from which the tonal material of a given composition is derived. To say, for example, that a composition is in the key of C major means that it uses as its basic tonal material the tones of that scale which is associated
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; scalescale,
in music, any series of tones arranged in a step-by-step rising or falling order of pitch. A scale defines the interval relationship of each tone to the others upon which the composition depends.
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; tonalitytonality
, in music, quality by which all tones of a composition are heard in relation to a central tone called the keynote or tonic. In music that has harmony the terms key and tonality
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.

Tonic

 

any of a class of medicinal agents that stimulate the central nervous system, blood circulation, and respiration. In cases of mental and physical fatigue, functioning capacity is increased by the administration of tonics—for example, preparations of ginseng, magnolia vine, pantocrine, or strychnine.


Tonic

 

in music, the chief, fundamental note of a key or tonality. In reference to melody, the tonic is a note and is related to the final of the Gregorian chant. In major and minor tonal systems it is a major or minor consonant triad. In 20th-century music dissonant chords may also function as a tonic, as in Scriabin’s use of a complex tonic in his later work. The tonic is the defining note of its corresponding tonality: the functions of notes and chords are determined by their pitch relationships to the tonic. The predominance of the tonic may also be reflected in rhythm and meter; classical composers of the Viennese school, for example, assigned maximum stress to the tonic by means of metrical accents and the placement of tonic chords at crucial points in the musical structure. The tonic of a mode is the most important element in determining that mode’s expressive character, for example, its major or minor nature.

IU. N. KHOLOPOV

tonic

1. a medicinal preparation intended to improve and strengthen the functioning of the body or increase the feeling of wellbeing
2. Music
a. the first degree of a major or minor scale and the tonal centre of a piece composed in a particular key
b. a key or chord based on this
3. Music of or relating to the first degree of a major or minor scale
4. of or denoting the general effect of colour and light and shade in a picture
5. Physiol of, relating to, characterized by, or affecting normal muscular or bodily tone
References in periodicals archive ?
A literature review for olanzapine yielded 1 case report of repetitive focal seizures and lingual dystonia, (32) 5 case reports of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and myoclonus, (33-37) and 2 case reports of status epilepticus.
(25) Our study showed that opipramol, a sigma receptor agonist, increased the latency for the PTZ-induced clonic and tonic-clonic seizures in mice.
Asadi-Pooya, In all types of seizures Zahed Malekmohamadi, After 1 year: engel 1 = 16.6% Ahmad Ka-mgarpour et Generalized tonic-clonic seizures al.
The results further indicate high mean score of patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizure (M= 51.3) on trait anxiety as compared to patients with complex partial seizures (M= 45.4), simple partial seizures (M= 46.0), absence seizure (M= 45.9) and unknown/ unclassified group (M= 47.6).
Abbreviations GTCS: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures NCC: Neurocysticercosis ADEM: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis SDH: Subdural hematoma SAH: Subarachnoid hemorrhage ICSOL: Intracranial space occupying lesion CT: Computed tomography.
In Groups A and B, all patients with tonic-clonic seizures were younger than 30 years The largest age difference among patients with epilepsy was 23 [+ or -] 5 years in all three groups (Table 3).
Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), a GABA-A receptor antagonist, is the most commonly used proconvulsant to induce spike and wave, myoclonus, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures [9].
Discussion: This report highlights the importance of a complete history and examination of patients with a history of tonic-clonic seizures and back pain, especially when considering spinal adjustments.
"This tumour causes Finley to have endocrine problems, severe epilepsy, gelastic seizures, darcrystic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, developmental delays, rage attacks and learning difficulties."
[7] During tonic-clonic seizures, TMJ dislocation occurs when uncoordinated forces caused chiefly by the lateral pterygoid muscles, unilaterally or bilaterally, protract the articular discs and mandibular condyles out of the mandibular fossa causing both the condyles and the articular discs to crossover the articular eminence into infratemporal fossa.
A Generalised seizure indicates a disorder in which the entire cortex instantly becomes epileptiform in nature, and may be classified as Absence or Generalised Tonic-Clonic Seizure (GTCS).
announced that the FDA has approved Fycompa (perampanel) CIII for adjunctive therapy in the treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures, one of the most common and severe forms of generalized seizures with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality.