tonic

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tonic,

in music: see harmonyharmony,
in music, simultaneous sounding of two or more tones and, especially, the study of chords and their relations. Harmony was the last in the development of what may be considered the basic elements of modern music—harmony, melody, rhythm, and tone quality or timbre.
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; keykey.
1 In music, term used to indicate the scale from which the tonal material of a given composition is derived. To say, for example, that a composition is in the key of C major means that it uses as its basic tonal material the tones of that scale which is associated
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; scalescale,
in music, any series of tones arranged in a step-by-step rising or falling order of pitch. A scale defines the interval relationship of each tone to the others upon which the composition depends.
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; tonalitytonality
, in music, quality by which all tones of a composition are heard in relation to a central tone called the keynote or tonic. In music that has harmony the terms key and tonality
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.

Tonic

 

any of a class of medicinal agents that stimulate the central nervous system, blood circulation, and respiration. In cases of mental and physical fatigue, functioning capacity is increased by the administration of tonics—for example, preparations of ginseng, magnolia vine, pantocrine, or strychnine.


Tonic

 

in music, the chief, fundamental note of a key or tonality. In reference to melody, the tonic is a note and is related to the final of the Gregorian chant. In major and minor tonal systems it is a major or minor consonant triad. In 20th-century music dissonant chords may also function as a tonic, as in Scriabin’s use of a complex tonic in his later work. The tonic is the defining note of its corresponding tonality: the functions of notes and chords are determined by their pitch relationships to the tonic. The predominance of the tonic may also be reflected in rhythm and meter; classical composers of the Viennese school, for example, assigned maximum stress to the tonic by means of metrical accents and the placement of tonic chords at crucial points in the musical structure. The tonic of a mode is the most important element in determining that mode’s expressive character, for example, its major or minor nature.

IU. N. KHOLOPOV

tonic

1. a medicinal preparation intended to improve and strengthen the functioning of the body or increase the feeling of wellbeing
2. Music
a. the first degree of a major or minor scale and the tonal centre of a piece composed in a particular key
b. a key or chord based on this
3. Music of or relating to the first degree of a major or minor scale
4. of or denoting the general effect of colour and light and shade in a picture
5. Physiol of, relating to, characterized by, or affecting normal muscular or bodily tone
References in periodicals archive ?
Together, these results support the hypothesis that the TRPV1 channel tonically suppresses general locomotor activity.
It remains tonically contracted even at rest, thus maintaining a pressure of 10-30 mm Hg.
During the flaccid state, the smooth muscle cells are tonically contracted, thus restricting blood flow to the erectile tissue.
Electrophysiological evidence that noradrenergic neurons of the rat locus coeruleus are tonically inhibited by GABA during sleep.
obs.], but they were not considered further here in our experiments.) In a typical recording, substantial spontaneous activity was observed throughout the experiment, probably reflecting the activity of tonically active mechanosensory afferents.
Leonard points to recent studies that suggest the caudate neurons are not tonically active and do not change levels of activation during motor activity.[8]
Culley et al., "Tonically active NMDA receptors--a signalling mechanism critical for interneuronal excitability in the CA1 stratum radiatum," European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
This result indicates that NO tonically inhibits neurohormonal secretion.
The responses to all three agonists were indistinguishable: the gills contracted tonically and, after 30 s to several minutes, reached their maxima.
When animals paused, with the body bent in one direction, the ipsilateral pSMNs were tonically active, while those on the opposite side were inhibited (Fig.
Recent study using GluN2A-H128S knockin mice, in which the high-affinity (nM) zinc inhibition of NMDAR is specifically eliminated, indicated that under resting conditions zinc levels are too low for tonic inhibition of GluN2A at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses, the most zinc enriched synapses in the brain, which is in contrast to the earlier belief that zinc levels are high enough to tonically occupy the nM zinc sites.
Tonically active protein kinase A regulates neurotransmitter release at the squid giant synapse.