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see teethteeth,
hard, calcified structures embedded in the bone of the jaws of vertebrates that perform the primary function of mastication. Humans and most other mammals have a temporary set of teeth, the deciduous, or milk, teeth; in humans, they usually erupt between the 6th and 24th
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One of the structures found in the mouth of most vertebrates which, in their most primitive form, were conical and were usually used for seizing, cutting up, or chewing food, or for all three of these purposes. The basic tissues that make up the vertebrate tooth are enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp (see illustration).

Structure of a toothenlarge picture
Structure of a tooth

Enamel is the hardest tissue in the body because of the very high concentration, about 96%, of mineral salts. The remaining 4% is water and organic matter. The enamel has no nerve supply, although it is nourished to a very slight degree from the dentin it surrounds. The fine, microscopic hexagonal rods (prisms) of apatite which make up the enamel are held together by a cementing substance.

Dentin, a very bonelike tissue, makes up the bulk of a tooth, consisting of 70% of such inorganic material as calcium and phosphorus, and 30% of water and organic matter, principally collagen. The rich nerve supply makes dentin a highly sensitive tissue; this sensitivity serves no obvious physiological function.

Cement is a calcified tissue, a type of modified bone less hard than dentin, which fastens the roots of teeth to the alveolus, the bony socket into which the tooth is implanted. A miscellaneous tissue, consisting of nerves, fibrous tissue, lymph, and blood vessels, known as the pulp, occupies the cavity of the tooth surrounded by dentin.

The dentition of therian mammals, at least primitively, consists of four different kinds of teeth. The incisors (I) are usually used for nipping and grasping; the canines (C) serve for stabbing or piercing; the premolars (Pm) grasp, slice, or function as additional molars; and the molars (M) do the chewing, cutting, and grinding of the food. Primitively the placentals have 40 teeth and the marsupials 50.

In therian mammals, probably because of the intricacies and vital importance of tooth occlusion, only part of the first (or “milk”) dentition is replaced. This second, or permanent, dentition is made up of incisors, canines, and premolars; as a rule only one premolar is replaced in marsupials. Although the molars erupt late in development and are permanent, that is, not replaced, they are part of the first, or deciduous, dentition.


One of a series of carved ornaments, typically a pyramidal shape or a four-petal flower, usually set in a concave molding band; used in the Romanesque and Gothic Revival styles. See also: Ornament


One of the hard bony structures supported by the jaws in mammals and by other bones of the mouth and pharynx in lower vertebrates serving principally for prehension and mastication.
(design engineering)
One of the regular projections on the edge or face of a gear wheel.
An angular projection on a tool or other implement, such as a rake, saw, or comb.
(graphic arts)
The coarse or abrasive quality of a paper or a painting ground that assists in the application of charcoal, pastels, or paint.
A paper texture that holds ink more readily.
(invertebrate zoology)
Any of various sharp, horny, chitinous, or calcareous processes on or about any part of an invertebrate that functions like or resembles vertebrate jaws.


1. In a paint film, a fine texture imparted either by pigments or by the abrasives used in sanding; this texture provides a good base for the adhesion of a subsequent coat of paint.
2. A dogtooth, 2.


1. any of various bonelike structures set in the jaws of most vertebrates and modified, according to the species, for biting, tearing, or chewing
2. any of various similar structures in invertebrates, occurring in the mouth or alimentary canal
3. any of the various small indentations occurring on the margin of a leaf, petal, etc.
4. any one of a number of uniform projections on a gear, sprocket, rack, etc., by which drive is transmitted
References in periodicals archive ?
On Forgetting seethed with anger and grief underneath the slick, acrylic sheen of toothy grins and a relentlessly cheery hyperkineticism that propelled a cavorting ensemble (Esther Baker-Tarpaga, Flip A.
Many works, such as Rural Peasant, Yanan, Shaanxi Province, 2000, display a mordant humor stripped of irony, as its conspicuous subject steadily meets our gaze with a full, toothy grin; others, like Two Homeless Boys, Beijing, 1998, smack gratingly of rhetoric while still conveying an unembarrassed sympathy.
I've met with toothy jaws right in my own backyard--property of a large raccoon, who, far from fleeing from my flashlight's beam, glared right back.
SEOUL MATES: When the top hits of 2004 are tallied, the weepy South Korean TV melodrama "Winter Sonata," starring toothy heartthrob Bae Yongjun, is likely to head the list.
Remember Dustin Hoffman upstaging Tom Cruise's toothy grin and Armani suits by working the autistic savant shtick in Rain Man Or how Sean Penn acted us senseless playing the lovably slow-witted hero in I Am Sam let alone the floridly bereaved father in Mystic River?
From the toothy, sinister grins of the P-51s to the B-17s and their famous Vargas pin-up girls, nose art on combat aircraft has exemplified a squadron's unique spirit.
Insiders say we can expect to see Buick's trademark toothy, oval grille and a similar oval taillight motif in the rear.
Toothy was first spotted by a guy who had been bicycling on a path along the Rhine River, when he stopped and wandered off into the bushes to take a leak.
It's the glint in their eyes and the toothy grins of excitement that make it all worth while for Equity Office as we continue in helping provide such a wonderful life experience for children," commented Buonantony.