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1. the conduct of the affairs of government
2. the executive branch of government along with the public service; the government as a whole
3. Chiefly US the political executive, esp of the US; the government
4. Chiefly US a government board, agency, authority, etc.
5. Property law
a. the conduct or disposal of the estate of a deceased person
b. the management by a trustee of an estate subject to a trust
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) Management or direction.

(2) Formal bureaucratic management, conducted merely by orders and edicts; a commanding that ignores the role of the masses in the management of socialist production.



(1) In the broad sense, administration refers to all the managerial activities of a state, which Marx called “the organizational activity of the state” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 1, p. 440). The state administration of the USSR consists of the executive agencies of the state which exercise managerial functions—that is, the day-to-day management of economic, social, cultural, administrative, and political development in the Soviet socialist state.

(2) In the narrower sense, administration refers to the officials of an institution or enterprise. For instance, the director of an enterprise and his deputies or the head of a higher educational institution and his deputies constitute the administration of the enterprise or higher educational institution, respectively.

The actions of Soviet administration are governed by law. The general legal principles governing the actions of the state administration are set forth in the USSR Constitution and the constitutions of the Union and autonomous republics. The legal status and the competence of administrations of enterprises and institutions are specified in the charter of the institution. The Party organization in CPSU enterprises have the right, in conformity with the rules of the CPSU, to monitor the actions of the administration (art. 59). The work of administration is greatly assisted by the trade union organizations or enterprises and institutions, by permanent production conferences, and other organizations. The relations between different levels of administration are based on the principles of democratic centralism.

Every administration is invested with the necessary rights to fulfill the duties it is charged with—for instance, the right to issue acts of administration, to hire and dismiss workers and employees, and to reward and discipline subordinates. The administration of an institution or enterprise represents its interests with respect to outside parties. It concludes agreements, pleads in court, and represents the institution or enterprise in arbitration and other state agencies as well as in public organizations.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chronology of Topical Administration Failures: The Basic Science Is Ignored
Evaluation of the mydriatic effects of topical administration of rocuronium bromide in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).
Zhou et al., "A mouse dry eye model induced by topical administration of benzalkonium chloride," Molecular Vision, vol.
The active ingredients in compounded preparations can be put into a wide variety of forms: transdermal patches, creams, ointments and gels for topical administration; nasal and oral sprays; otic insufflations (preparations designed to be blown into the ear); suppositories and more.
Paice said she and her colleagues conducted a small study to assess the bioavailability of a topical formulation of morphine relative to the 100% bioavailable subcutaneous dose, but in blood samples collected from the participants beginning 5 minutes to 10 hours after dose administration "we seldom detected morphine in plasma samples after topical administration, and when it was detected, the concentrations were below the limit of quantification [0.5 ng/ml]."
Peter Lichtlen, M.D., Ph.D., Head of Clinical Development at ESBATech AG, commented, "ESBA105 shows an entirely novel and unique intraocular distribution pattern upon topical administration to the eye.
BOSTON -- Topical administration of diclofenac sodium gel was associated with statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in symptoms of hand osteoarthritis in a multicenter, double-blind trial, Dr.
MediGene has agreed to a phase IV trial, comparing the pharmacokinetics of catechins following topical administration of Veregen ointment 15% with that after oral administration of a green tea solution.
Absorption is also dependent on the limited total dosage applied to the middle ear; compared with parenteral administration, topical administration delivers only minimal amounts of dexamethasone to the middle ear in each application.
Key Words: topical administration, adult airway obstruction, general anaesthesia, local anaesthesia, intubation, intratracheal, complications, laryngismus, larynx, lignocaine
The study further demonstrated that the combination of oral and topical administration of lutein/ zeaxanthin provided even more powerful improvements, increasing skin hydration by 60%, skin elasticity by 20% and the amount of superficial lipids present in the skin by 50% after adjustment for placebo, all while decreasing the oxidation of those beneficial lipids by 64%.