fluoride

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fluoride,

a salt of hydrofluoric acid; see hydrogen fluoridehydrogen fluoride,
chemical compound, HF, a colorless, fuming liquid or colorless gas that boils at 19.54°C;. It is miscible with water and is soluble in benzene, toluene, and concentrated sulfuric acid.
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. See also fluoridationfluoridation
, process of adding a fluoride to the water supply of a community to preserve the teeth of the inhabitants. Tooth enamel ordinarily contains small amounts of fluorides and when the amount is augmented through the intake of fluoridated water, especially during the
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; fluorinefluorine
, gaseous chemical element; symbol F; at. no. 9; at. wt. 18.9984; m.p. −219.6°C;; b.p. −188.14°C;; density 1.696 grams per liter at STP; valence −1. Fluorine is a yellowish, poisonous, highly corrosive gas.
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.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Fluoride

 

a compound of fluorine with other elements. The fluorides of elements in Groups I and II of Mendeleev’s periodic system are solids with an ionic element—fluorine bond; the fluorides of most elements in Groups VI–VII are gases with a covalent element—fluorine bond. Compounds containing a C—F bond form numerous classes of fluorocarbons; the higher fluorides of many metals, such as U, V, Mo, W, and Re, are volatile substances. Fluorides occur in nature as constituents of minerals. In terms of chemical properties, the fluorides of halogens, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, and many other elements in higher oxidation states (for example, PtF5, CoF3, and AgF2) are oxidizing agents; the fluorides of arsenic, antimony, and boron are strong Lewis acids (seeACIDS AND BASES).

Fluorides can be obtained by the interaction of fluorine with elements, by the action of hydrogen fluoride on metals, and by other methods.

Hydrogen fluoride, oxyfluorides, and nitrogen fluorine compounds are widely used. The chlorine fluorides C1F3 and C1F5 are rocket-fuel oxidizing agents; C1F3 also serves as a fluorinating agent in the preparation of uranium hexafluoride, UF6, which is used in the atomic industry for the isotope separation of uranium. The volatile fluorides of metals are used in the application of metallic coatings. The fluorides of lithium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and other metals are used as raw materials in the manufacture of optical glass. (See alsoCRYOLITE.)

REFERENCES

See references under .

A. V. PANKRATOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

fluoride

[′flu̇r‚īd]
(inorganic chemistry)
A salt of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

fluoride

1. any salt of hydrofluoric acid, containing the fluoride ion, F--
2. any compound containing fluorine, such as methyl fluoride
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Preventive care included "FL" (topical fluoride, applied in either a dental or medical setting), "SE" (pit and fissure sealants), and "FL_SE" (both FL and SE in one visit).
Apart from prescribing home fluoride treatment, 49.7% of total practitioners also performed in-office topical fluoride treatment.
Hence the focus of the fluoride usage is on topical fluorides. But water fluoridation is also considered as one of the major public health initiative, which reduces the health related disparities among various communities.
Early consumption of fluoridated water and exposure to different sources of topical fluoride was noted by only a minority of respondents (18.9%, 21.2%; respectively) and therefore was not statistically evaluated.
Oral health data were aggregated at the school level and included the percentage of children in each school requiring preventive dental care (dental sealants, cleanings and topical fluoride treatments), the percentage of children with urgent dental treatment needs and non-urgent dental treatment and the percentage of children who had > two decayed teeth.
Topical fluoride was provided in varnishes or toothpaste, and in two studies, mouth-rinsing with an antimicrobial mouthwash was recommended.
A decline of caries similar in timing and magnitude to that in the United States has occurred in many developed European countries, which have rejected water fluoridation, but instead have used topical fluoride treatments and public consumption of fluoride supplements.
The [CaF.sub.2] particles are the major reaction products after a topical fluoride application to tooth surfaces (1-3) The source of calcium (Ca) necessary for [CaF.sub.2] precipitation after topical F application could be enamel, saliva, plaque fluid, oral mucosa or calculus (13).
It is also known to inhibit the action of many key enzymes and increase lead and arsenic exposure, even though topical fluoride may help to remineralize cavities at the early stages.
Augenstein et al presented an interesting review of 87 cases of accidental fluoride ingestion, which included ingestion of topical fluoride products, excessive topical fluoride application by dental practitioners, and ingestion of a sodium fluoride insecticide, analysis of which indicated that the majority of cases of fluoride toxicity in children of less than 12 years of age, in amounts up to 8.4 mg/kg of body weight, resulted in mostly mild and self-limiting symptoms, which were mostly gastrointestinal in nature.
Topical fluoride and sealants also help to prevent cavities.

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