Mele, "[Z.sub.2] topological order
and the quantum spin hall effect," Physical Review Letters, vol.
The minor order is a generalization of the topological order
, because subdivision removal is just a special case of edge contraction.
Subjects discussed in this volume include a history of the past sixty years of condensed matter physics; spin ice, fractionalization, and topological order
; superconducting microresonators; quantum computation by local measurement; and Bose gases with non-zero spin.
The lecture notes address such concepts as the interplay between conformal field theory and stochastic Loewner evolution, Coulomb gas techniques, tiling models, dimers, the definition of models of random curves on a background of random triangulations, boundary conditions, quantum inverse scattering, spin chains, the interplay between integrable models and combinatorics, mass transport models of condensation in real space, quantum impurity problems, the physics of spin liquids, the quantum Hall effect, models of rotating Bose-Einstein condensates, and models of topological order
with applications to quantum computing.
Actually, it presents and discusses in classic topological order
the theological contents of the Reformed creeds, ranging from revelation, trinity, creation, sin, covenant, justification, and sanctification, to church, sacraments, ministry, and church and state (part 2; 29-264).
Topics for students and researchers include mathematical formulas of atom trap quantum gates, Poisson algebras and Yang-Baxter equations and topological order
Other topics include superconductors with topological order
, superconductivity in highly correlated systems, Cooper's electron pairs in low-temperature superconductors, charge carrier localization in plumbates.