mastectomy

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Related to total mastectomy: modified radical mastectomy, radical mastectomy

mastectomy

(măstĕk`təmē), surgical removal of breast tissue, usually done as treatment for breast cancercancer,
in medicine, common term for neoplasms, or tumors, that are malignant. Like benign tumors, malignant tumors do not respond to body mechanisms that limit cell growth.
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. There are many types of mastectomy. In general, the farther the cancer has spread, the more tissue is taken. The radical mastectomies of the past (which removed not only the breast, but underlying chest muscle and lymph nodes) have largely been replaced by less drastic, but equally effective procedures. For small tumors, lumpectomy, removing just the tumor and a margin of tissue, may be performed. A partial, or segmental, mastectomy removes the cancer, some breast tissue, the lining over the chest, and usually some lymph nodes from under the arm; total or simple mastectomy removes the whole breast; modified radical mastectomy takes the breast, lining over the chest muscles, and lymph nodes.

Breast reconstruction can be done using the patient's own tissue or breast implantsbreast implant,
saline- or silicone-filled prosthesis used after mastectomy as a part of the breast reconstruction process or used cosmetically to augment small breasts.
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. Mammograms and self-conducted breast exams have done much to reduce the need for radical procedures because they have increased early detection of the cancer, allowing it to be treated before it has spread.

mastectomy

[ma′stek·tə·mē]
(medicine)
Surgical removal of the breast. Also known as mammectomy.

mastectomy

the surgical removal of a breast
References in periodicals archive ?
Simple mastectomy: This procedure consists of a total mastectomy without removal of axillary lymph nodes.
Fisher et al(26) reported results of a multicentric randomized clinical trial in 1985 comparing disease-free survival in anatomic breast cancer with clinically negative nodes using (1) modified radical mastectomy; (2) simple, total mastectomy plus local and axillary radiation; and (3) simple mastectomy without radiation or axillary dissection.
Results of an eight-year study continue to demonstrate that surgical removal of a segment of the breast containing a primary cancer tumor (lumpectomy) followed by radiation therapy produces as good long-term survival and disease-free rates for women as does total mastectomy, or complete breast removal.
In the two reports, radical mastectomy was compared with segmental mastectomy (lumpectomy), in which the tumor plus a margin of the surrounding normal tissue is removed; and with total mastectomy, in which the breast tissue is removed, along with a few lymph nodes if the cancer has spread, but muscle is allowed to remain.
Following primary surgery with total mastectomy or lumpectomy plus axillary nodal dissection, a total of 5,351 premenopausal and postmenopausal women with operable, lymph node-positive, early stage breast cancer were enrolled in the clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive either four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of docetaxel (sequential ACT); four cycles of doxorubicin and docetaxel (doxorubicin-docetaxel); or four cycles of doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide and docetaxel (concurrent ACT).
Six cancer patients (11%) had close/positive margins, with four requiring total mastectomy and two needing further re-excisions.
That study followed 1,851 women randomized to a lumpectomy with or without radiation therapy and total mastectomy for treating invasive breast cancer.
For the randomized, controlled trial initiated in 1971, 1,079 women with negative axillary nodes underwent either radical mastectomy, total mastectomy with postoperative irradiation (but without axillary dissection), or total mastectomy with axillary dissection if nodes became positive.
To enroll in the trial patients must have early-stage, triple-negative breast cancer and must have undergone either breast conservation surgery or a total mastectomy.
5 year results of a randomised clinical trial comparing total mastectomy and segmental mastectomy with or without radiation in the treatment of breast cancer.
For the randomized, controlled trial initiated in 1971, 1,079 women with negative axillary nodes underwent either radical mastectomy, total mastectomy with postoperative irradiation (but no axillary dissection), or total mastectomy with axillary dissection if nodes became positive.
Recommendations from the NCCN Guideline Panel for treatment of IBC (without evidence of metastases) involve a combined modality approach including preoperative chemotherapy with an anthracycline with or without a taxane followed by total mastectomy and radiation therapy for patients responding to preoperative chemotherapy.

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