totemism


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totemism

the practice of symbolically identifying humans with nonhuman objects (usually animals or plants). The classic case of totemism is when a clan claims an animal as a mythological ancestor: however, the term has also been used to cover a wide range of symbolic practices. Functional anthropologists, such as RADCLIFFE-BROWN, (under the influence of DURKHEIM) have explained totems in terms of their being symbols of group solidarity. FREUD, in Totem and Taboo, (1913) used the idea of a totem as a mediator between repressed culture and instinctive nature. Later, structural anthropologists, as exemplified by LÉVI-STRAUSS, focused on their capacity to express structures of difference between humans and animals. He argues that totemism, like TABOO, is yet another instance of nature being ‘good to think with’, that is to say, certain objects possess qualities that express vital features of human experience and are thus used to construct a mythology of the concrete.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Totemism

 

in tribal societies, a system of beliefs, myths, rites, and customs deriving from the notion that a supernatural kinship exists between individual groups of people and totems—usually either animals or plants or, less commonly, natural phenomena or inanimate objects. Clan totemism is more common than individual or gender totemism. The totem, most often an animal, is an object of religious veneration for the group, usually a tribal community, that bears the totem’s name. The group’s members are therefore forbidden to hunt, kill, or eat the totem; because of their common relation to the same totem, they are also forbidden to marry one another.

A totemic group considers itself related to the totem through shared mythical ancestors, who are either half-human and half-animal or half-human and half-plant. The group believes that the totem is the bestower and protector of life’s blessings, and in that conviction it practices magic rites intended to proliferate the totem. Such rites include the ceremonial consumption of the totem’s flesh—otherwise taboo—the telling of myths, and dancing by masked tribesmen imitating the totem.

Scholars differ with respect to the origin and essential meaning of totemism. Some, including the French sociologist E. Durkheim, regard totemism as a form of religion; others, such as the contemporary French scholar C. Lévi-Strauss, reject the religious interpretation of totemism, contending that the phenomenon is merely a system of primitive classification. The English ethnographer J. Frazer, despite his extensive research on the subject, was unable to formulate any conclusions regarding the nature of totemism. According to Soviet scholars, particularly D. K. Zelenin, A. M. Zolotarev, S. A. Tokarev, S. P. Tolstov, and D. E. Khaitun, who have conducted a thorough study of the subject, totemism is a global phenomenon that appears in a particular stage of society’s development; it is one of the oldest religious systems, reflecting in fantastic form the kinship ties in primitive societies.

Totemism has been preserved most fully among the Australian aborigines. Vestiges of totemism, however, appear in all world religions, including Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam.

REFERENCES

Tokarev, S. A. Rannie formy religü i ikh razvitie. Moscow, 1964.
Khaitun, D. E. Totemizm, ego sushchnost’ i proiskhozhdenie. Stalinabad, 1958.
Frazer, J. Totemism and Exogamy, vols. 1–4. London, 1910.
Lévi-Strauss, C. Le Totémisme aujourd’hui. Paris, 1964.

B. I. SHAREVSKAIA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
5) Totemism often involves the use or wear of totemic emblems or designs.
Totemism and the transmission of human pentastomiasis.
(77) Claude Levi-Strauss, Totemism (Boston: Beacon Press, 1963), p.
Lang's work on totemism has been published posthumously by Duff-Cooper 1995.
His stated purpose was to identify the fundamental nature of religion, and to achieve that goal he proposed to analyze "the most primitive and simple religion which is actually known": the totemism practiced by aboriginal tribes living in remote regions of Australia.
A Through my reading of Claude Levi Strauss' book on totemism when I first started doing this work, reading of some universal myths and American Indian legends.
Myth (as well as ritual and totemism) mediates the subject's relation to the world and enables "human beings to apprehend the world as a complex whole whose many parts (and problems) are all interrelated--in 'correspondence' with one another" (p.
The next shock Levi-Strauss delivered, in 1962, was his demolition of extant anthropological theories of totemism, a word derived from a British fur trader working around the Great Lakes of North America in the late eighteenth century: the idea that American Indians and people like them were spiritually tied to an animal or element in nature and that this link was directly related to that animal or element as something useful to physical survival.
Yvette Kisor's paper provides us with a close look at Tolkien's incorporation of traces of shamanism and totemism in his depiction of Gandalf and other characters; yet another indication of how Tolkien created historical depth in his tales by reproducing the way traces of early mythic and religious themes survive in later tales and folklore.
If, in Brokeback, animal slaughter (and the enthusiastic meal that ensues) alludes to the two immediate results of the primal crime--the celebration of the elimination of the father and the subsequent kinship this act produces in the 'horde'--in Einaym Pkuhot the symbolic killing of 'the father' is enacted by the butcher daily through the ritualistic preparation of meat, realizing not only the transition of the primal crime into its symbolic form in the totem meal but totemism into organized religion.
In Freud's anthropological paradigm, the story outlined in "Family Romances" is later than that in Totem and Taboo, the former dealing with the child's life within a nuclear family existing within an organized society, the latter dealing with children before there is much sense of family and no sense at all of organized "society." In Totem and Taboo, Freud's interest lies in the development of cultural elements from the features of totemism. Here, what Freud calls "Darwin's primal horde" has not risen even to the level of totemism, there being, as, for instance, in Eugene O'Neill's Desire Under the Elms, nothing but "a violent and jealous father who keeps all the females for himself and drives away his sons as they grow up" (Freud Reader 500).