Ever-use of most organochlorines, including chlordane, DDT, heptachlor, lindane, and toxaphene
, were positively associated with hypothyroidism in the previous study of the AHS farmers; that study, however, did not report age-specific associations (Goldner et al.
Barresi and staff at NLET (Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario, Canada) for analysis of BFRs, toxaphene
, and endosulfan.
For all statistically significant associations, the number of positive t(14;18) cases exceeded the number of negative t(14;18) cases (e.g., lindane, cyclodienes as a class, dieldrin, toxaphene
, atrazine, phthalimide, and a fumigant).
endrin, heptachlor, hexaphlorobenzene, mirex, toxaphene
lead, mercury, MTBE, nominal particulates (Class I), taste and odor, toxaphene
, turbidity, volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
The most predominant occurrences were observed for DDT, DDE, DDD, heptachlor, toxaphene
and various endrin compounds.
At one time, it was common practice to tank mix DDT (Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) with a variety of chemicals, such as toxaphene
, methyl parathion, a wetting agent, a sticker, maneb (manganese ethylene bisdithiocarbamate), tribasic copper sulfate, streptomycin, wettable sulfur, urea LB (Lo-Biuret Urea), epsom salt, magnesium sulfate, potassium nitrate, manganese sulfate, Solubor (boron), sodium molybdate, Foam Buster, molasses, and Cygon (dimethoate).
It prohibits and/or limits the production and use of twelve POPs: aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex toxaphene
, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), DDT, polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans.
These are (1) DDT or its breakdown product DDE, (2) Aldrin biphenyls, (3) Dieldrin, (4) Endrin, (5) Chlordane broad spectrum, (6) Heptachlor, (7) Hexachlorobenzene, (8) Mirex, and (9) Toxaphene
(PSR monitor, 1998 cited in Ohanjanyan, 1999).
The study concluded that carcinogens such as PCBs, DDT, chlordane and toxaphene
have largely leveled off or have begun declining in Arctic animals after years on the rise.
The die-off ultimately was attributed to organochlorine pesticide (OCP) poisoning from dieldrin, toxaphene
, and DDT and its metabolites that were applied over many years when the fields had been used for crop production.
(2003:35) have written that, while caribou, ringed seal, and arctic char are the three major Inuit country food items by weight, "the top three contributors of chlordane, PCBs and toxaphene
" are narwhal, walrus, and beluga whale blubber.