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Related to toxemia: preeclampsia


(tŏksē`mēə), disease state caused by the presence in the blood of bacterial toxinstoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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 or other harmful substances. The effects of the bacterial toxins known as endotoxins are relatively uniform, regardless of which bacterial species the toxin comes from, and are separate from the effects caused by the infecting bacterium itself. A small amount of endotoxin (released by dead bacteria) produces one or more fever episodes, thought to be caused by release of a fever-inducing substance from damaged white blood cells. Large quantities of endotoxin cause shock and death. Exotoxins are proteins released by bacteria that have specific effects on target tissues, e.g., botulinus toxin affects the nervous system. See also septicemiasepticemia
, invasion of the bloodstream by virulent bacteria that multiply and discharge their toxic products. The disorder, which is serious and sometimes fatal, is commonly known as blood poisoning.
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The term toxemia is also used for a disorder occurring during the latter half of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure, the appearance of protein in the urine, and edema. If not treated it can result in convulsions and coma. The cause of toxemia of pregnancy has not been established with certainty. See also eclampsiaeclampsia
, term applied to toxic complications that can occur late in pregnancy. Toxemia of pregnancy occurs in 10% to 20% of pregnant women; symptoms include headache, vertigo, visual disturbances, vomiting, hypertension, and edema.
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A condition in which the blood contains toxic substances, either of microbial origin or as by-products of abnormal protein metabolism.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(US), toxemia
1. a condition characterized by the presence of bacterial toxins in the blood
2. the condition in pregnancy of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Oxidant and antioxidant profile of hyperketonemic ewes affected by pregnancy toxemia. Vet Clin Pathol 2011; 40:60-5.
Later on Randall et al [9] used the technique of Hines and Brown in pregnancy and concluded that by means of this test it might be possible to pick out, during early pregnancy, a group of women, some of whom might later develop hypertensive toxemia.
Although considered a rare condition, intestinal toxemia botulism was reported in 5 adults in or near Toronto, Ontario, Canada, during November 2006-May 2008.
Some concentrate feeding during the first half of the dry period may be necessary to achieve the targeted 3.5 BCS and during the second half of the dry period to prevent pregnancy toxemia. Gestating meat goats may also require grain supplementation during the last month of gestation to prevent pregnancy toxemia, especially if multiple births are expected.
Still, despite medical advances, approximately 50,000 babies die every year in the United States because of birth complications such as toxemia (hypertension), notes Ward.
"She's extra special in some ways, as we nearly lost her mother, Julianna, through pregnancy toxemia, laying around for weeks before we nursed her back to health."
More distinctive clinical hallmarks are hemorrhagic inflammation of the lymph nodes in the chest cavity, hemorrhagic pleural effusions, bacteremia and toxemia resulting in severe respiratory difficulty (dyspnea), deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues (hypoxia), and septic shock.
Installed near the front end of the chicken-processing line, cameras look for defects such as improperly bled birds and those afflicted by systemic diseases, like septicemia and toxemia. Unique software and algorithms provide the intelligence for translating visual data from the system's cameras into the appropriate mechanical commands for dispensation of each chicken.