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mixture of a poisonous substance, or toxintoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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, with an antitoxinantitoxin,
any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's
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, or antibodyantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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, in such proportion that a large percentage of the toxin is neutralized by the antitoxin. Although formerly used to immunize an individual against disease, toxin-antitoxin mixtures have been largely supplanted by toxoidstoxoid,
protein toxin treated by heat or chemicals so that its poisonous property is destroyed but its capacity to stimulate the formation of toxin antibodies, or antitoxins, remains.
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. See immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Toxin-antitoxin modules are mainly categorized in three different classes and class II TA system comprises proteins forming toxin-antitoxin (TA) protein complex [3, 21].
The chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems perform various cellular functions via cell cycle arrest, stress response mechanisms, and promoting programmed cell death [25, 26].
Simultaneous expression of Lon protease and its action over labile antitoxin that is susceptible to be degraded ultimately unleash toxin from the toxin-antitoxin complex.
van Melderen, "Toxin-antitoxin systems: why so many, what for?" Current Opinion in Microbiology, vol.
Lobner-Olesen, "Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci," Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol.
Magnuson, "Hypothetical functions of toxin-antitoxin systems," Journal of Bacteriology, vol.
Gerdes, "(p)ppGpp controls bacterial persistence by stochastic induction of toxin-antitoxin activity," Cell, vol.
Medical personnel administered free toxin-antitoxin injections at schools, public beaches, and parks.