toxoid


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Related to toxoid: tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid

toxoid,

protein toxintoxin,
poison produced by living organisms. Toxins are classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are a diverse group of soluble proteins released into the surrounding tissue by living bacterial cells. Exotoxins have specific reaction sites in the host; e.g.
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 treated by heat or chemicals so that its poisonous property is destroyed but its capacity to stimulate the formation of toxin antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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, or antitoxinsantitoxin,
any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins. By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's
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, remains. Because toxoids can be given in large quantities with no risk of tissue damage, they have superseded the highly poisonous toxins as immunizing agents against such diseases as diphtheria and tetanus.

Toxoid

 

(also anatoxin), a harmless derivative of a toxin that retains its antigenic and immunogenic properties. It is obtained by rendering the toxin harmless with formalin at 37–40°C. A toxoid suitable for immunizing human beings was first obtained in 1923 by the French immunologist G. Ramon. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are used as prophylactic measures against these infections. Staphylococcal, botulin, and dysentery toxoids, toxoids produced by the causative agents of gas gangrene and made from the poisons of some poisonous snakes, and other toxoids have been produced and are used for specific prophylaxis and treatment. Toxoids are also used for immunizing horses in order to obtain medicinal antitoxic serums (antitetanus and antidiphtheria).

T. I. BULATOVA

toxoid

[′täk‚sȯid]
(immunology)
Detoxified toxin, but with antigenic properties intact; toxoids of tetanus and diphtheria are used for immunization.
References in periodicals archive ?
Preventing tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis: use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine.
Administration has approved VAXELIS (Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed, Inactivated Poliovirus, Haemophilus b Conjugate Meningococcal Protein Conjugate and Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine) for use in children from 6 weeks through 4 years of age (prior to the 5th birthday).
htm); ActHIB (Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine [Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate], manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA) (http://www.
Acquisition of human vaccines lot 6: tetravalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis with diphtheria toxoid of at least 30 iu and pertussis toxoid of 25 hu
Pentacel (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed, inactivated poliovirus) and Haemophilus b conjugate (tetanus toxoid conjugate) vaccine).
Two Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed (Tdap) products were licensed for single-dose use earlier this year: Glaxo-SmithKline's Boostrix, approved for ages 10-18 years, and Sanofi-Pasteur's Adacel, for ages 11-64 years.
Contract notice: acquisition of human vaccines lot 06: tetravalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, whooping cough with diphtheria toxoid reference number: 1947_2_06
Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adults aged 65 years and older--Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2012.
A new policy statement from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends universal immunization with the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine at the 11-12 year-age visit, as well as catch-up immunization of older adolescents, to boost individual and herd protection against pertussis.
Lot 2 : A sterile mixture of injectable vaccine containing a low dose of diphtheria toxoid (greater than 2 iu), Tetanus toxoid (greater than 20 iu) and inactivated poliomyelitis virus types1, 2 and 3.
In October 2011, in an effort to reduce the burden of pertussis in infants, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that unvaccinated pregnant women receive a dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) (1).
Two Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccine, Adsorbed (Tdap) products were licensed for single-dose use earlier this year: GlaxoSmithKline's Boostrix, approved for ages 10-18 years, and Sanofi-Pasteur's Adacel, for ages 11-64 years.