tp


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tp

(networking)
The country code for East Timor.

teleprocessing

("long distance" processing) An early IBM term for data communications.

TP monitor

(TeleProcessing monitor or Transaction Processing monitor) A control program that manages the transfer of data between multiple local and remote terminals and the application programs that serve them. It may also include programs that format the terminal screens and validate the data entered.

In a distributed client/server environment, a TP monitor provides integrity by ensuring that transactions do not get lost or damaged. It may be placed in a separate machine and used to balance the load between clients and various application servers and database servers. It is also used to create a high availability system by switching a failed transaction to another machine. A TP monitor guarantees that all databases are updated from a single transaction (see two-phase commit).

Examples of popular TP monitors are CICS, a veteran TP monitor used on IBM mainframes and the Unix-based Tuxedo and Encina products. See BEA Tuxedo and Encina.

TPO

(Twisted Pair Only) The use of twisted pair wire when other options are available. For example, a TPO suffix at the end of an earlier 3com Ethernet adapter model numbers indicated the card had only an RJ45 connector. TP meant RJ45 and AUI connectors, TPC was RJ45 and BNC, and COMBO cards provided all three. See 10Base2 and 10Base5.

twisted pair

A thin-diameter wire (22 to 26 gauge) commonly used for telephone and network cabling. The wires are twisted around each other to minimize interference from other twisted pairs in the cable. Alexander Graham Bell invented this and was awarded a patent in 1881. Twisted pairs support less bandwidth than coaxial cable or optical fiber.

Unshielded (UTP) and Shielded (STP)
Twisted pair cables are available unshielded (UTP) or shielded (STP), with UTP being the most common. Shielded twisted pair (STP) is used in noisy environments and protects against electromagnetic interference.

Stranded and Solid
Both UTP and STP come in stranded and solid wire varieties. Stranded is the most common and also very flexible for bending around corners. Solid wire has less attenuation and spans longer distances but is less flexible.


Shielded and Unshielded Twisted Pairs
ScTP (screened twisted pair), also called "foil twisted pair" (FTP), uses one overall shield for more protection than UTP but not as much as STP, which has shields around each wire pair. For an actual example of STP vs. UTP, see cable categories.




   Cable      Band-      Data#  Type       Width      Rate

 1  UTP       Analog voice
 2  UTP                 1 Mbps

 3  UTP/STP   16 MHz,   4 Mbps
 4  UTP/STP   20 MHz,  16 Mbps
 5  UTP/STP  100 MHz, 100 Mbps
 5e UTP/STP  100 MHz,   1 Gbps
 6  UTP/STP  200 MHz,  10 Gbps (<10 m)
 6a UTP/STP  500 MHz,  10 Gbps (>10 m)

 7  STP      600 MHz   10 Gbps
 7a STP     1000 MHz   40 Gbps (<15 m)



The Real Twisted Pair