They thought that it was associated with iatrogenic or thick preretinal membrane's tangential tractional force
over the fovea and absorption of sub-ILM deposits.
Although pretreatment with anti-VEGF agents may reduce bleeding tendency during the operation, it may also aggravate the tractional force
of the fibrovascular tissue, and thus it should be judiciously used in eyes with fibrous components.
Guidry, "Vitreous IGFBP-3 effects on Muller cell proliferation and tractional force
generation," Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol.
Suction is left on until delivery of the infant and traction started only after full suction has been reached. This allows for the development of a caput succedaneum (chignon) to which the tractional force
Cisesky y otros seis autores, Fluid pressurization and tractional forces
during TMJ disc loading: A biphasic finite element analysis, Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, 20, 151-156 (2017)
Marx, "Static and dynamic loading effect on temporomandibular joint disc tractional forces
," Journal of Dental Research, vol.
Retinal surgery releases the tractional forces
on the retinal surface.
In addition, the presence of vitreoretinal interface pathologies, such as epimacular membranes, can apply tractional forces
to the macula and aggravate DME.
(32) First, tractional forces
during PVD results in breaks in the retina's inner limiting membrane, allowing migration of glial cells (non-neuronal retinal cells that provide neuronal support) to the inner retinal surface where they proliferate.
 Tractional forces
applied to the aortic root as the tumour moves towards the left ventricle during diastole have been implicated in the aortic incompetence.
Citation: "Matrix identity and tractional forces
influence indirect cardiac reprogramming"; Yen P.
The tractional forces
related to respiration are highest in the areas where disease appears first on chest imaging and in pathologic examination, corresponding to regions prone to physiologic alveolar collapse at rest.