trait theory


Also found in: Wikipedia.

trait theory

a form of personality theory which describes individual differences in terms of a number of relatively enduring independent traits. A trait is a bipolar construct (e.g. clever – stupid; mean -generous), often represented by a scale on which individuals can be rated. Trait theories vary largely according to the number of independent traits believed to be necessary to provide a complete description of personality. Personality inventories provide a picture or profile of these trait scores, derived from responses to self-report questions. Examples include the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) (Cattell, 1963), and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) (Gough, 1957). Indirect measurement of traits is also possible (see PROJECTIVE TESTS). A complementary view of personality is provided by type theories which characterize individuals by one of a much smaller number of dominant traits or types (see EXTRAVERSION).
References in periodicals archive ?
This is similar to the Trait Theory of leadership that says that some people are born with traits that make them natural leaders.
One theory of the personality is the trait theory which concerned with describing the personality in terms of person's trait and thereby predicting the behavior based on that description [6, 7].
The State Trait Theory related to the driver anger that impact on drivers driving behaviors.
Trait theory (also called dispositions theory) is a kind of model to explain the human personality and is considered as the empirical justification of the present research.
It divides the student's life into past, present, and future selves--genetic and temperamental influences and the role of early environments; identity and self-esteem, needs, motives, goals, and stress; and expectations, plans, and self-regulation, as well as personality continuity and change--answering questions through research related to psychodynamic, trait theory, cognitive/social learning, humanist/existential/narrative, and evolutionary psychology.
Trait theory was used early in the 20th century as a physical and personal predictor of a person's leadership abilities.
Currently, the most widely cited view of trait theory is the "five-factor model," the FFM, with personality being adequately described with five traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness (McCrae and Costa (1996, 2003).
The great man theory evolved into trait theory during early 20th century.
The chapter also beautifully traces the evolution of leadership from trait theory to situational or contingency theory to transactional theory to transformational leadership and delves at various similarities and differences between military leadership and corporate leadership.
(52) Allport's model of behavior, which came to be known as "trait theory" or the "theory of generality," (53) suggests that if one comes to learn another person's character trait for a particular quality, one could accurately predict that person's behavior in situations that implicate the application of that trait.
Trait theory, which grew out of the great man approach mentioned above, is based on the idea that leaders possess certain attributes or traits which permit them to attract, secure and control followers.
Of the various perspectives from diverse discourses on personality, trait theory is more frequently used in leisure studies (Mannell & Kleiber, 1997)., It has been confirmed in numerous studies that, based on personality trait theory, people's leisure preferences and activities choices are influenced by their unique personality traits (Barnett & Klitzing, 2006; Hills & Argyle, 1998; Lawton, 1994; Lu & Argyle, 1993).