trait theory


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trait theory

a form of personality theory which describes individual differences in terms of a number of relatively enduring independent traits. A trait is a bipolar construct (e.g. clever – stupid; mean -generous), often represented by a scale on which individuals can be rated. Trait theories vary largely according to the number of independent traits believed to be necessary to provide a complete description of personality. Personality inventories provide a picture or profile of these trait scores, derived from responses to self-report questions. Examples include the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) (Cattell, 1963), and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) (Gough, 1957). Indirect measurement of traits is also possible (see PROJECTIVE TESTS). A complementary view of personality is provided by type theories which characterize individuals by one of a much smaller number of dominant traits or types (see EXTRAVERSION).
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One theory of the personality is the trait theory which concerned with describing the personality in terms of person's trait and thereby predicting the behavior based on that description [6, 7].
The State Trait Theory related to the driver anger that impact on drivers driving behaviors.
As the present study focuses on the personality traits of an individual, so there is a need to explain trait theory specifically.
It divides the student's life into past, present, and future selves--genetic and temperamental influences and the role of early environments; identity and self-esteem, needs, motives, goals, and stress; and expectations, plans, and self-regulation, as well as personality continuity and change--answering questions through research related to psychodynamic, trait theory, cognitive/social learning, humanist/existential/narrative, and evolutionary psychology.
Trait theory was used early in the 20th century as a physical and personal predictor of a person's leadership abilities.
Currently, the most widely cited view of trait theory is the "five-factor model," the FFM, with personality being adequately described with five traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness (McCrae and Costa (1996, 2003).
The great man theory evolved into trait theory during early 20th century.
The chapter also beautifully traces the evolution of leadership from trait theory to situational or contingency theory to transactional theory to transformational leadership and delves at various similarities and differences between military leadership and corporate leadership.
Trait theory, which grew out of the great man approach mentioned above, is based on the idea that leaders possess certain attributes or traits which permit them to attract, secure and control followers.
In light of these challenges to trait theory, a new model of behavior known as "situationism" (65) emerged, which suggested that individual behavior is a product of a person's situation rather than his or her internal processes.
Of the various perspectives from diverse discourses on personality, trait theory is more frequently used in leisure studies (Mannell & Kleiber, 1997).
The present research extends the past research limited to two personality traits (Nygren and White, 2005) based on the big-five trait theory of McCrae and Costa (1990) and suggests the theoretical and practical implications of personality-decision associations in a collectivist culture.