tranquilizer


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tranquilizer,

drug whose action calms the central nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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, decreasing emotional agitation without impairing alertness. Tranquilizing drugs differ from hypnotic drugs such as barbituratesbarbiturate
, any one of a group of drugs that act as depressants on the central nervous system. High doses depress both nerve and muscle activity and inhibit oxygen consumption in the tissues. In low doses barbiturates act as sedatives, i.e.
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 in that they do not act on the brain's cortical areas but rather on its lower portions, e.g., the hypothalamushypothalamus
, an important supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function.
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. They have been found helpful in the treatment of tension and mental illness. Reserpinereserpine
, alkaloid isolated from the root of the snakeroot plant (Rauwolfia serpentina), a small evergreen climbing shrub of the dogbane family native to the Indian subcontinent.
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, which appeared on the market in 1952, was the first tranquilizer to be used in modern Western medicine. Other drugs used as tranquilizers include the phenothiazinesphenothiazine
, any one of a class of drugs used to control mental disorders. Phenothiazines, along with other antipsychotic, or neuroleptic, drugs are used for such disorders as schizophrenia, paranoia, mania, psychosis resulting from mental deficiency, some forms of senility,
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, meprobamatemeprobamate
, tranquilizing drug that acts as a depressant of the central nervous system and is commonly used in the treatment of anxiety and sometimes schizophrenia. Although meprobamate is chemically unlike barbiturates and has lower toxicity, it has similar pharmacological
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, certain muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants, and lithium carbonate. See also psychopharmacologypsychopharmacology
, in its broadest sense, the study of all pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. The term is usually applied more specifically to the study and synthesis of drugs used in the control of psychiatric illnesses, namely the
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.

tranquilizer

[′traŋ·kwə‚līz·ər]
(pharmacology)
Any agent that brings about a state of relief from anxiety, or peace of mind.
Any agent that produces a calming or sedative effect without inducing sleep.
Any drug, such as chlorpromazine, used primarily for its calming and antipsychotic effects, or such as meprobamate, used for symptomatic treatment of common psychoneuroses and as an adjunct in somatic disorders complicated by anxiety and tension.

tranquillizer

, tranquilliser (US), tranquilizer
a drug that calms a person without affecting clarity of consciousness
References in periodicals archive ?
Although Tone makes reference to the shifting ideas about neuroses and the anxiety disorders as defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (especially in the watershed DSM-III and beyond), she does not explore the changing boundaries of anxiety or the ways in which tranquilizer use might have produced the diagnostic categories themselves.
It is easy to oversimplify the complex issues involved in the social, political and medical context surrounding the explosion in the use of tranquilizers.
The irony of this cultural backlash was that there was no discernable decline in tranquilizer use.
severe anxiety with minor tranquilizers and other psychoactive agents (Molde, 1975).
In January, Bush's daughter Noelle was nabbed while using a forged prescription to procure the tranquilizer Xanax at a Tallahassee drug store.
Mamoru Takuma, the man arrested on suspicion of stabbing eight schoolchildren to death and injuring an additional 15 people at an Osaka elementary school last Friday, allegedly gave awkward statements in an earlier, separate assault case, and escaped indictment after he was diagnosed with a tranquilizer dependency, investigation sources said.
Golden Key's new Tranquilizer stabilizer is said to reduce the noise of a release up to 12dB and reduce vibrations up to 70 percent.
Connors, as it turned out, had filled at least 15 prescriptions for the powerful tranquilizer Stelazine during the three years prior to the crash.
A male nurse committed suicide in April about a week after stealing muscle relaxant, tranquilizer and anesthetic drugs from the hospital in Ishikawa Prefecture he worked at, hospital officials said Wednesday.
The researchers recommend that doctors consider reducing or stopping the tranquilizer before adding an anti-Parkinson's drug.
The tranquilizer results were surprising, Collman said.
Officials used two tranquilizer darts to sedate the 300-pound bear and wardens released it into the wild north of Ojai.