tranquilizer


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tranquilizer,

drug whose action calms the central nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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, decreasing emotional agitation without impairing alertness. Tranquilizing drugs differ from hypnotic drugs such as barbituratesbarbiturate
, any one of a group of drugs that act as depressants on the central nervous system. High doses depress both nerve and muscle activity and inhibit oxygen consumption in the tissues. In low doses barbiturates act as sedatives, i.e.
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 in that they do not act on the brain's cortical areas but rather on its lower portions, e.g., the hypothalamushypothalamus
, an important supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function.
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. They have been found helpful in the treatment of tension and mental illness. Reserpinereserpine
, alkaloid isolated from the root of the snakeroot plant (Rauwolfia serpentina), a small evergreen climbing shrub of the dogbane family native to the Indian subcontinent.
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, which appeared on the market in 1952, was the first tranquilizer to be used in modern Western medicine. Other drugs used as tranquilizers include the phenothiazinesphenothiazine
, any one of a class of drugs used to control mental disorders. Phenothiazines, along with other antipsychotic, or neuroleptic, drugs are used for such disorders as schizophrenia, paranoia, mania, psychosis resulting from mental deficiency, some forms of senility,
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, meprobamatemeprobamate
, tranquilizing drug that acts as a depressant of the central nervous system and is commonly used in the treatment of anxiety and sometimes schizophrenia. Although meprobamate is chemically unlike barbiturates and has lower toxicity, it has similar pharmacological
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, certain muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants, and lithium carbonate. See also psychopharmacologypsychopharmacology
, in its broadest sense, the study of all pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. The term is usually applied more specifically to the study and synthesis of drugs used in the control of psychiatric illnesses, namely the
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.

tranquilizer

[′traŋ·kwə‚līz·ər]
(pharmacology)
Any agent that brings about a state of relief from anxiety, or peace of mind.
Any agent that produces a calming or sedative effect without inducing sleep.
Any drug, such as chlorpromazine, used primarily for its calming and antipsychotic effects, or such as meprobamate, used for symptomatic treatment of common psychoneuroses and as an adjunct in somatic disorders complicated by anxiety and tension.

tranquillizer

, tranquilliser (US), tranquilizer
a drug that calms a person without affecting clarity of consciousness
References in periodicals archive ?
Tone describes the evolution of tranquilizers, beginning with.
One interesting theme in the book describes the undercurrent of concern within scientific and popular circles about the potential for dependence and serious withdrawal effects from long-term use of tranquilizers. In The Age of Anxiety, Tone discusses research published as early as 1961 that documented the potentially serious withdrawal reactions that could occur with medications such as Librium and Valium.
The president of Carter Products was initially not enthusiastic; he did not see much of a market for tranquilizers. Berger and Ludwig sent samples to several physicians, whose initial enthusiasm helped to suggest the drug's commercial viability.
PAST 30-DAY ABUSE BY 12TH-GRADERS, 2002 OXYCONTIN 4 VICODIN 9.6 TRANQUILIZERS 7.7 SEDATIVES/BARBITURATES 6.7 RITALIN 4 SOURCE: MONITORING THE FUTURE, 2002 Note: Table made from bar graph.
And, when the study ended, the participants showed no signs of dependency, unlike what often happens with prescription tranquilizers like Xanax.
In half of the test conditions, both animals in the pair were able to watch as either the grapes were hidden in the cage or a researcher with the tranquilizer dart hid as a predator.
The bluesy rhythm and steady rap of the music act as a sexy tranquilizer for the nervous group: Bill Cooley, Laura Doughty, Daphne Vitolins, and Steven Lumadue are drawn together, squiggling and pawing, tantalizing each other - but never looking at each other.
Therefore, physicians most often treat very disturbed patients by first combining lithium with a different type of drug, a tranquilizer, such as haloperidol or chlorpromazine.
The tranquilizing effects of benzodiazephine, a frequently used minor tranquilizer (Tallman, Paul, Skolick, & Gallager, 1980), are countered by caffeine.
ISLAMABAD -- State Minister for Inter Provincial Coordination, Dr Darshan Lal Monday told the National Assembly that tranquilizer medicine in country were being sold only on the prescription of Doctor.
The club drug that is also commonly used as a horse tranquilizer is called--.
In January, Bush's daughter Noelle was nabbed while using a forged prescription to procure the tranquilizer Xanax at a Tallahassee drug store.