Almost every biology textbook now describes the structure of DNA and the roles of messenger RNAs, transfer RNAs
, and ribosomal RNAs in protein synthesis.
One marker, identified by EST00083, shown to be within a mitochondrial gene coding threonine transfer RNA
, yielded significant differences between high- and low-IQ groups in two small samples (Skuder et al.
Nucleotides in transfer RNA
(tRNA)  are intensively modified after transcription.
These consisted of a synthetic transfer RNA
(tRNA) that cells use to incorporate amino acids into a protein that is being built inside a cell.
The key reaction in this decoding process is the attachment of a particular amino acid to one end of a small RNA molecule known as a transfer RNA
His pioneering discoveries of the amino acid activation step of protein synthesis and also of transfer RNA
were key steps in the solution of the genetic information relay from DNA to protein, leading to his election to the National Academy of Sciences and nomination, on more than one occasion, for the Nobel Prize," said Thoru Pederson, the Vitold Arnett professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology at the University of Massachusetts Medical School.
To use an amino acid, a cell must first attach it to a molecule of a type called transfer RNA
In 1964 the molecule of alanine-transfer RNA
(the particular transfer RNA
that attaches itself to the amino acid alanine) was completely analyzed by a team headed by the American biochemist Robert William Holley (b.
During the manufacture of a protein, transfer RNA
, also called tRNA, normally places an amino acid at the end of a growing chain of protein building blocks.
One type of RNA molecule, called transfer RNA
, binds to amino acids, the basic building blocks of proteins.
For example, in addition to its angiogenic effects, angiogenin specifically degrades transfer RNA
, but not messenger RNA (14).