pharming

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pharming

(fär`mĭng), the use of genetically altered livestock, such as cows, goats, pigs, and chickens, to produce medically useful products. In pharming, researchers first create hybrid genes using animal DNA and the human or other gene that makes a desired substance, such as a hormone. Employing the techniques of genetic engineeringgenetic engineering,
the use of various methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or produce biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying cancer cells and of cells that make a
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, they then introduce the hybrid genes into animal embryos, which are then reimplanted into foster mothers and carried to term, creating transgenic animals that secrete human hormones or proteins, antibiotics, or other substances in their milk, blood, semen, eggs, or the like. The material containing the secreted substance is harvested, and the substance extracted and purified. The process has yielded drugs, such as growth hormone and antithrombin; blood components, such as hemoglobin; and large quantities of certain proteins needed for research.

Still largely in the developmental stage as a manufacturing process, pharming must overcome technical and economic hurdles, and substances produced as treatments for human beings also must be tested in clinical trials. Nevertheless, it is regarded as a more efficient alternative to the technique of using genetically altered bacteria or specially cultured animal cells to produce drugs, and as the only way to produce some more complex proteins. Also being experimentally explored is the use of genetically engineered plants, specifically rubber trees, to produce pharmaceuticals in their sap and the use of transgenic animals as sources of organs for medical transplantationtransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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. A necessary step toward the later was achieved in 2000 when pigs were cloned that lacked a gene that causes the human immune system to reject swine tissue.

pharming

Setting up a fraudulent website that contains copies of pages from a legitimate website in order to capture confidential information from users. By hacking into the Internet's DNS servers and changing IP addresses, users are automatically redirected to the bogus site, at least for some period of time until the DNS records can be restored. See DNS hijacking.

For example, if a bank's DNS were changed, users could be redirected to a website that looks familiar. The bogus site could collect usernames and passwords or using some pretense request additional financial information. Unlike phishing schemes that use a link in an email message to go to the phony site, pharming is more natural. Users are purposefully going to a familiar site.

Check the Address Line
The only way to avoid being suckered in is to always check the address line in the browser. Most people never do this and may not even be familiar with the valid URL of the site they go to all the time because they just click a bookmark. For example, if mybank.com were switched to mybnk.com, only an extremely observant user would notice and question this discrepancy. See phishing.
References in periodicals archive ?
Among their topics are surfacing the role of epigenetics in host-virus interaction, tools and techniques for producing double-stranded RNA and its application in managing plant viral diseases, viruses infecting rice and their transgenic control, virus-resistant transgenic tomato: current status and future prospects, and virus-induced gene silencing and its applications.
An Argentine grower told the tribunal that, with transgenics and glyphosate, farmers don't have to till the land as much.
Ireland-based ERS Genomics has signed a non-exclusive license agreement with Knudra Transgenics, a company involved in model-organism bioengineering.
Additionally, shoot tip culture can also be used to generate transgenics [7].
In these circumstances, the displacement of the question would transfer the focus from the more general risks related to transgenics to the exclusively individual expectations of fear and acceptance.
Transgenic are organisms into which transgene has been artificially introduced and the transgene stably integrated into their genomes [1].
This study revealed that the bias in codon preference could be one of the factors in getting reduced levels of expression in transgenics. In our transient expression analysis we observed only four fold increased expression.
With transgenics, you take a gene from another, unrelated organism and introduce it in one way or the other into an organism, like a crop plant.
The progenies of these mtlD positive transgenics were further tested for the segregation by chi-square analysis.
This Green Revolution sought mainly to create genetically modified organisms (GMO), better known as transgenics. These are organisms created in the laboratory with certain techniques that consist in the transference, from one organism to another, of a gene responsible for a given characteristic, manipulating its natural structure and, thus, modifying its genome.
One of the key sessions at the weeklong "Tree Biotechnology 2013 Conference" dealt with the "different aspects of the use of transgenics, including gains in productivity, gene flow, and societal acceptance." The last point, it turned out, would be the attendees' biggest hurdle.
Topics covered include the Human Genome Project, the mechanics of cloning, transgenics, gene therapy, saviour siblings, GM crops and farming and medical uses.