transhumance


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transhumance

the seasonal movement of human groups in search of pastures; for example, the movement from dry season to wet season pastures undertaken by the Nuer. See also PASTORALISM, NOMADS, HERDING SOCIETY.

Transhumance

 

the seasonal movement of animals between pastures that are located far from residential and production centers. The animals are pastured year-round or for the greater part of the year. Sheep, horses, camels, and yaks are best adapted to transhumance. In many regions cattle are also kept on seasonal pastures.

The principal regions of transhumance in the USSR are Kazakhstan, Middle Asia, Transcaucasia, and the Northern Caucasus, as well as southeastern regions of the European RSFSR and of Western and Eastern Siberia. A nomadic system, in which land cultivation and systematic stock raising were nonexistent, formerly prevailed in many of these regions. When kolkhozes and sovkhozes were first organized, livestock usually was both pastured and stabled. With the growth of herds, farms were no longer able to supply sufficient feed from their own land.

In 1942 the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) and of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR passed the resolution On Measures for the Care of Offspring and Increase in Livestock Herds on Kolkhozes and Sovkhozes, which set forth a program for the organization of transhumant animal raising. From 1945 to 1973, many old pastures were irrigated and improved, and many new pastures were created. Mechanized stock-raising stations and brigades to help farms prepare reserves of fodder and mechanize water lifting and other labor-intensive processes have been set up on the distant pastures. Many farms have irrigated areas for growing fodder plants. An evaluation of pastures (to assess their natural characteristics and farming capacity), pasture rotation, and enclosed pasturing have been introduced.

The entire camel and yak population, more than 50 percent of the sheep and goat population, 25 percent of the cattle population, and a large number of horses are concentrated in the desert, semidesert, steppe, and mountain regions of the USSR. In the spring, summer, and autumn, all the livestock in these regions are pastured. In the winter 30–35 million head are pastured. Light-weight structures made of local materials, sheds, and windbreaks are built to shelter the animals during bad weather. Permanent dwellings or portable cottages or yurts are provided for the herdsmen. Farm and interfarm cultural centers are being established in many regions.

The economic merit of transhumant stock raising has been proved. The net cost of the animal products is decreased significantly because expenditures for feed, maintenance, and labor are minimal. Considerable areas of arable land on the farms are freed for the development of other branches of agriculture.

A year-round pasturing system is used in several countries, including Australia, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Argentina, Brazil, and New Zealand. In Australia, about 170 million sheep and about 18 million cattle are pastured year-round. In Mongolia more than 22 million head of livestock are kept in pastures throughout the year.

IA. Z. LUTSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
The increasing human population, encroachment of the previous pastoral lands and their mobility routes, shortage of land for grazing during mobility and the land development for urbanization and industrial use, etc., add to hindering transhumance (Samuel et al.
Jusqu'ici, a l'instar de la transhumance que la decision de proscrire etait implacable, on tergiverse encore pour mettre un terme a cette hecatombe qui ne cesse de ronger nos elections.
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The animals in this study were reared traditionally with or without transhumance, as well as in semi-intensive and extensive systems.
The five points of design are transhumance, mutation, counter-culture, amnesiac memory and hedonism and the expression of design is realized through a graphic mural landscape, tapestry design, a visual poem and audio by the Moroccan music group Nass El-Ghiwane.
N.B Le projet du code des collectivites territoriales presente au gouvernement debut 2018 Interroge sur les mecanismes de lutte contre la transhumance politique, le ministre a precise que la Loi organique portant regime electoral "a interdit" ce phenomene et qu'en coordination avec la Haute instance independante de surveillance des elections (HIISE), "cette question sera abordee" dans le Code communal et de wilaya qui [beaucoup moins que]sera sous forme de loi organique unifiee intitulee Loi relative aux collectivites locales".
The book begins with an overview of the geographical, prehistoric, and historical setting, and gives a theoretical framework defining pastoralism, pastoral nomadism, transhumance, and tribalism.
Building from the study of contemporary patterns of livestock mobility and their logics, archival and secondary literatures are used to develop an understanding of dominant herd mobility patterns at the time (transhumance for grazing and trekking to distant markets); the importance of livestock as a source of tax revenue; colonial anxieties about the loss of livestock from within their borders; and efforts of colonial administrators to reduce the potential loss of livestock from their territories.
Translation as Transhumance by Mireille Gansel , translated by Ros Schwartz .
NEOLITHIC ARCHAEOLOGY AT THE PENEDO DOS MOUROS ROCK-SHELTER (GOUVEIA, PORTUGAL) AND THE ISSUE OF PRIMITIVE TRANSHUMANCE PRACTICES IN THE ESTRELA MOUNTAIN RANGE
Canaanite culture apparently pioneered the Mediterranean agricultural system typical of the Canaanite region, which comprised intensive subsistence horticulture, extensive grain growing, commercial olive cultivation and transhumance pastoralism, the raising of livestock.
This reminds us that the geography of portions of Anatolia requires transhumance, something seldom mentioned in our texts.