Algorithm 1: The DTMDP-based asynchronous on/off strategies Input:The network state: x = ([x.sub.0] (t), [x.sub.1] (t),..., [x.sub.K] (t)), the

transition probability matrix: {[p.sub.i,j,k](t), k [member of] 0, 1,..., K} Output:the optimal on/off strategy of the SBSs: [[omega].sup.*](t) 1: Obtain the on/off priority set H(t) based on the UE numbers of all SBSs 2: Number the SBSs by k [member of] 1, 2,..., K according to the on/off priority set H(t) 3: Initialize k = 0 4: while ([P.sup.i.sub.blocking].

The state

transition probability matrices for the first-order and second-order HMMs are shown as follows:

(1) Drought classification states and

transition probability matrix:

Therefore, the paper would focus on the two aspects of research including risk state classification and

transition probability estimation.

is called the

transition probability matrix at time t.

[mathematical expression not reproducible] (l',l) is the branch

transition probability for decoder 2 from state l' to state l of bit i (i = 0 or 1) at time instant t.

(b) Using trained neural network, syllable

transition probability is calculated for each frame of sound.

The

transition probability of vehicle group situation from time t - 1 to time t was denoted as [p.sub.i,j] (i, j - 1, 2, 3, ..., 16).

In this implementation, the

transition probability [p.sub.fg] is so important that it will influence the sensing effect of the system.

Powerful tools such as Markov chain should be employed, due to their excellent performances in

transition probability estimation [18, 19].

There is a

transition probability when the bandwidth moves from one state to another after each time step.

In Figure 3, for example, an MS in ring 2 cell enters (i) a ring 1 cell with

transition probability P[[T.sub.c] > [T.sub.m]]/4, (ii) a ring 2 cell with

transition probability P[[T.sub.c] > [T.sub.m]]/3, (iii) a ring 3 cell with

transition probability 5P[[T.sub.c] > [T.sub.m]]/12, or (iv) the ring 0 cell with

transition probability (1 - P[[T.sub.c] > [T.sub.m]]) when an incoming or outgoing call is generated.