Shear design models in these standards are based on a theory that shear capacity of reinforced concrete beam consists of concrete shear resistance Vc and FRP transverse reinforcement
shear resistance Vf.
Moehle, "Seismic tests of concrete columns with light transverse reinforcement
," ACI Structural Journal, vol.
Their tests indicated that additional transverse reinforcement
enhanced the behaviour of sub-assemblage but the construction of such connection was found to be extremely difficult.
The volumetric transverse reinforcement
ratio was equal to 0.09%.
Sezen and Moehle  also proposed the shear strength model including contributions from the concrete and transverse reinforcement
by considering the column cross-sectional dimensions, concrete compressive strength, column aspect ratio, axial load, and displacement ductility demand.
For the longitudinal reinforcement, simple beam model equations were used and for the transverse reinforcement
, Model I recommended by ABNT (2014) was selected.
Beams B2 and B3 had 8 mm transverse reinforcement
in the form of rectangular closed stirrups.
Coupling beams between special structural walls (shear walls) are typically reinforced with diagonal bars that are "woven" together with dense transverse reinforcement
, he adds.
The shear wall was instrumented with a load cell and two linear variable differential transformers (LVDT), and strain gauges were attached to the rebar and transverse reinforcement
. Figure 3 shows wall instruments, and Table 1 has the nomenclature of each strain gauge.
A numerical study was carried out by Kyei and Braimah (2017) to investigate the effects of transverse reinforcement
spacing on the blast resistance of RC columns using LS-DYNA code.
Main reinforcement and transverse reinforcement
are fixed in a cage form and placed with cover adjustment.