270 t concrete reinforcement and transverse shear
, Including equipment and waterproofing; Approx.
A more practical modelling of elastic foundation can be implemented using Pasternak foundation model  which regards both normal pressure and transverse shear
stress using two modulus parameters corresponding to each one.
Kirchhoff-Love (KL) shell theory assumes zero transverse shear
strains and is appropriate for thin shells.
As with Pro, the optimization uses all of the FEA computed shell element in-plane membrane forces, out of plane transverse shear
forces, and bending moments.
When a lap-shear specimen is subjected to clamped loading conditions, the bending moments and transverse shear
forces due to the clamped loading grips can have effects on the loading conditions at the weld and consequently on the stress intensity factors for the weld.
By using virtual work principle, the equilibrium equation is obtained based on the membrane (N), bending (M), and transverse shear
resultant forces (Q) as follows:
failure criterion for 3D laminates (from orthotopic material) was used as the interlaminar failure criterion; see Table 5.
The two steel box girders are modeled as Timoshenko's beam elements with 6 degrees of freedom (DOFs) at each node, which account for transverse shear
deformation, biaxial bending, and axial strain.
Correspondingly, transverse shear
strains from strain-displacement relations are [[u.
He also looks at the effects of geometrical and physical nonlinearity, piezoelectric effect and transverse shear
The shear buckling, a failure mode, is characterized by a sudden large deformation of structure due to a high transverse shear
stress and the actual transverse stress at the moment of buckling is less than the ultimate stress of the material.
Despite many attractive features of the K-FEM, in the application to shear-deformable plates and shells, the drawback of transverse shear
locking and membrane locking presents in the K-FEM [3, 4, 9, 10].