2 (some more-derived dichobunines plus lantianiine, some eurodexine dichobunids): Ms quadrate, incipiently selenodont; hypocone distinct; metaconule in latter two groups still connected to protocone by postprotocrista, interrupting transverse valley
The hypoconid has a less compressed transverse valley
between the metaconid and itself.
There is a prominent ectostylid in the transverse valley
The ectostylid is present in the transverse valley between the protConid and the hypConid.
The transverse valley between the first and the second lobe is jointed at the base by a tubercle and the ectostylid is present in the transverse valley of the second and third lobes.
The lingual cones are somewhat constricted with narrow transverse valley
. There is no entostyle.
Transverse valleys are linear and shallow, while longitudinal valleys are wavy.
The transverse valleys are open labially but some of them are closed lingually.
Since prehistory, the Himalayan mountain range has presented a formidable barrier to population migration, while at the same time its transverse valleys have long served as conduits for trade and exchange.
The high altitude transverse valleys of the Himalayan arc were among the last habitable places permanently colonized by prehistoric humans due to the challenges of resource scarcity, cold stress and hypoxia.
A second route connects Tarapaca Viejo with the upper transverse valleys of far-northern Chile and southern Peru.
In comparison with other Inka and Inka-influenced sites in northern Chile, such as Molle Pampa Este, Pampa Alto Ramirez, Saguara, Hacienda Camerones, Zapahuira, and Inkaguano (Figure 1), Tarapaca Viejo is uncommonly well-connected with the highlands, other transverse valleys, and the coast.