trauma

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trauma

1. Psychol a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects
2. Pathol any bodily injury or wound
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Trauma

 

an externally caused injury to the human or animal organism. Depending on its cause, a trauma may be classified as mechanical, chemical, or thermal (as in burns or frostbite), as a barotrauma (caused by abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure), as an electrotrauma, or as a combination of types of traumas—for example, a mechanical trauma combined with a burn. Depending on the duration of the traumatic event, a trauma may be either acute or chronic. Traumas may also be classified according to the circumstances in which they occur—for example, nonoccupational injuries, industrial accidents, or injuries resulting from athletic activity or military combat.

A mechanical trauma may be an open wound, or it may be a closed injury, with the skin remaining intact; it may be uncomplicated, or it may develop such complications as suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, or traumatic toxicosis; it may be isolated (that is, limited to one organ or part of an extremity) or extensive (with injury to several organs or parts); or it may involve a combination of simultaneous injuries to the internal organs and the muscu-loskeletal system. Specific types of traumas are contusions, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, and ruptures. They may be accompanied by hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, or necrosis (gangrene) of the tissues. Severe and extensive traumas are accompanied by shock and may be fatal. A special type is psychic trauma—a term denoting an emotional shock, and particularly one due to traumatic verbal activity. Psychic traumas may lead to morbid reactions in the psychic and autonomic systems, such as depression and neurosis.

Timely first aid and treatment may prevent severe posttraumatic complications. The various types of traumas are treated by appropriate medical specialists.

REFERENCES

See references under and .

V. F. POZHARISKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

trauma

[′trau̇·mə]
(medicine)
An injury caused by a mechanical or physical agent.
(psychology)
A severe psychic injury.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The population of the study comprised male and female patients who were treated at the emergency service for multiple traumas, were 18 years or older, mentally healthy, had no visual, hearing or speech impairments, spoke Turkish, had suffered trauma to at least two body parts (head-neck, chest, abdomen and extremities) or had more than one long-bone fracture, were brought to the emergency room from the accident scene and agreed to participate inthestudy.
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A few examples are trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy, or TF-CBT, for children aged 3-18 years; child-parent psychotherapy (CPP) for children aged 0-6 years; a group school-based model, cognitive-behavioral interventions for trauma in schools (CBITS); and Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy for teens (TARGET).
Trauma studies has been slow to gain traction in early modern literary criticism.
Only after dealing with personal trauma can a reservist be equipped to guide others, she added.
Winter has expressed his own opinion on the power of trauma to generate a communal memory of trauma, "If traumas pose a special challenge to remembrance -and create special bonds among those who were there--they are definitely not unique in their power to generate a community of memory" (52).
In counseling and related fields, understanding of trauma has grown rapidly over the past several decades (Courtois & Gold, 2009; Levers, 2012).
The independent audit, produced by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN), shows that patients in England have a 30 per cent improved chance of surviving severe injuries after the introduction of Regional Trauma Networks across England in April 2012.
Table-III: Distribution of thoracic traumas according to age range.
After a payment-driven hiatus of more than two decades, "trauma" is making a comeback in addiction treatment.