arthritis

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arthritis,

painful inflammation of a joint or joints of the body, usually producing heat and redness. There are many kinds of arthritis. In its various forms, arthritis disables more people than any other chronic disorder. The condition can be brought about by nerve impairment, increased or decreased function of the endocrine glands, or degeneration due to age. Less frequently, it is caused by infection (tuberculosistuberculosis
(TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and
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, gonorrheagonorrhea
, common infectious disease caused by a bacterium (Neisseria gonorrhoeae), involving chiefly the mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract. It may occasionally spread to membranes in other parts of the body, especially those of the joints and the eyes.
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, Lyme diseaseLyme disease
or Lyme borreliosis,
a nonfatal bacterial infection that causes symptoms ranging from fever and headache to a painful swelling of the joints. The first American case of Lyme's characteristic rash was documented in 1970 and the disease was first identified
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, rheumatic feverrheumatic fever
, systemic inflammatory disease, extremely variable in its manifestation, severity, duration, and aftereffects. It is frequently followed by serious heart disease, especially when there are repeated attacks. Rheumatic fever usually affects children.
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).

Rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune diseaseautoimmune disease,
any of a number of abnormal conditions caused when the body produces antibodies to its own substances. In rheumatoid arthritis, a group of antibody molecules called collectively RF, or rheumatoid factor, is complexed to the individual's own gamma globulin
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 of unknown cause, is the most crippling form. Women are much more susceptible to it than men. Although rheumatoid arthritis usually appears between the ages of 25 and 50, it also occurs in children. Osteoarthritis, the most common type, occurs usually in people over 50. It tends to be more severe when the joints have been strained by obesity or overwork. Goutgout,
condition that manifests itself as recurrent attacks of acute arthritis, which may become chronic and deforming. It results from deposits of uric acid crystals in connective tissue or joints.
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, the third most common form of arthritis, affects men almost exclusively.

Symptomatic treatment for arthritis includes use of heat, physical therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugsnonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug,
a drug that suppresses inflammation in a manner similar to steroids, but without the side effects of steroids; commonly referred to by the acronym NSAID .
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 such as a cox-2 inhibitor (Celebrex), aspirinaspirin,
acetyl derivative of salicylic acid (see salicylate) that is used to lower fever, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and thin the blood. Common conditions treated with aspirin include headache, muscle and joint pain, and the inflammation caused by rheumatic fever and
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, ibuprofenibuprofen
, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that reduces pain, fever, and inflammation. Along with naproxen and ketoprofen, ibuprofen belongs to the propionic acid class of NSAIDs. It was first made available in 1967.
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, and naproxennaproxen
and naproxen sodium,
potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) used to alleviate the minor pain of arthritis, menstruation, headaches, and the like, and to reduce fever.
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. Remission of symptoms can sometimes be achieved with methotrexate, gold salts, penicillamine, and short-term cortisonecortisone
, steroid hormone whose main physiological effect is on carbohydrate metabolism. It is synthesized from cholesterol in the outer layer, or cortex, of the adrenal gland under the stimulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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, but they often have undesirable side effects. Orthopedic surgery, including artificial joint implantation, may be done in severe cases.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Arthritis

 

a group of joint diseases that are of infectious origin or arise as a result of disruption of the nutrition of the joint. Arthritis can be an independent disease or a manifestation of some other disease. Symptoms that may indicate arthritis include pain, redness, swelling, deformation, impaired joint function, increase of local (cutaneous) temperature above the joint, and fever. In different forms of the disease the symptoms appear in various combinations.

The Ninth International Congress of Rheumatologists in 1957 accepted a working classification and nomenclature of joint diseases; this was reflected in the classification and terminology of joint diseases developed in the USSR in the same year. The classification was based on etiological (causal), pathogenetic (according to the mechanism of evolution), and clinical-anatomical principles. The disease of one joint is monoarthritis; of several joints, polyarthritis. Arthritis can be acute and chronic, with or without effusion (serous, suppurative, or hemorrhagic). According to its origin, arthritis is divided into traumatic, infectious, degenerative, arthritis associated with other diseases, and rare forms of joint lesions. The infectious forms of arthritis include rheumatic fever (Sokol’skii-Bouillaud’s disease); arthritis associated with the presence in the organism of one or another specific infection, such as tuberculous, syphilitic, dysenteric, gonorrheal, septic, and brucellosis arthritis; infectious nonspecific arthritis; and ankylosing spondylitis (von Bechterew-Strumpell’s disease). Degenerative arthritis arises as a result of metabolic disturbance and includes gouty arthritis, arthritis accompanying Kashin-Beck disease and hemophilia, rheumatoid arthritis, degenerative (hypertrophic) arthritis (osteoarthritis), and arthritis resulting from changes in the endocrine system (climacteric, thyrotoxic, and so on). This group also includes arthritis associated with vitamin deficiency (scorbutic arthritis), physical over-exertion, chilling, and unsanitary conditions at home and on the job (arthritis in miners, transport workers, and metallurgical workers). Traumatic arthritis includes arthritis occurring after open (penetrating) or closed joint injury, as well as in cases of repeated mild traumatism (vibration arthritis). Arthritis can also be associated with diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, periarteritis nodosa, leukemia and other blood diseases, psoriasis, and diseases of the nervous system.

In some cases arthritis progresses with little change in the joints; in other cases there is significant change in the synovial sheath, cartilage, bone, and joint capsule and ligaments. Arthritis can terminate in complete restoration of normal joint function, but it can also lead to disfigurement of the joint and its partial or complete immobilization.

Treatment consists of isolation of the factor causing arthritis or treatment of the disease that caused its development. Depending on the character of the arthritis, antibiotics, hormone preparations, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs, physiotherapy, or therapeutic gymnastics are prescribed. Surgical treatment is widely used; this consists of resection of the capsule, arthroplasty, arthrotomy, and arthrodesis. Treatment is also carried out at health resorts (including Tskhaltubo, Piatigorsk, Saki, and Evpatoriia in the USSR).

In the prevention of arthritis, sanitation measures for work and daily life are very significant. These measures include improvement of working methods, labor protection, safety technology, elimination or lessening of professional hazards, and observation of hygiene in dwellings and dress.

REFERENCES

Kushelovskii, B. P., M. A. Lasinovskii, and S. M. Ryss. Bolezni sustavov. Revmatizm. Avitaminozy. Moscow, 1961. (Bibliography.)
Leporskii, A. A. Lechebnaia fizicheskaia kul’tura pri bolezniakh obmena veshchestv i zabolevaniiakh sustavov. Moscow, 1960.
Nesterov, A. I., and Ia. A. Sigidin. Klinika kollagenovykh boleznei, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

arthritis

[är′thrīd·əs]
(medicine)
Any inflammatory process affecting joints or their component tissues.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

arthritis

inflammation of a joint or joints characterized by pain and stiffness of the affected parts, caused by gout, rheumatic fever, etc.
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Previous research has shown that fixation failure in hip fractures ranges from 5% in peritrochanteric fractures through to 15% and 41% in undisplaced and displaced fractures of the femoral neck, respectively.14 Examples of failed cases included nonunion, loosening of internal fixation, osteonecrosis, traumatic arthritis, malunion, infection, etc.6 In this study, there were 32 patients with femoral neck fracture, of whom 23 had displaced fracture.
The Syndrome: Professional athletes, runners, jumpers and others who put extreme stress on their joints have a high risk of incurring traumatic arthritis. For baseball pitchers, the condition often develops in their elbows.
The femoral head necrosis occurs due to lack of blood supply resulted from prolonged dislocation of the hip joint and accelerates if the femoral head ligament is cut in operation to deteriorate the blood supply.8 Traumatic arthritis may develop due to poor reduction of fracture in the weight bearing area of the articular surface.
Therapeutic results were related to time of follow-up for femoral head necrosis and traumatic arthritis may not appear in a short time.
Hawkin's Type-II and Martin Weber Type I and II are amenable to conservative management with a 40-50% risk of developing avascular necrosis and post traumatic arthritis. We treated 2 cases of Hawkin's Type I fracture neck and 2 cases of talar process conservatively with a plaster cast and found union in both the cases.
Bohler, Mindellbetal and Pennel stated that there is a high risk of Avascular Necrosis (2030%) and subtalar post traumatic arthritis (70-100%) with open reduction and internal fixation in Type 3 and 4 fractures.
While in the lateral column Kirschner wire was used to avoid joint stiffness postoperatively.14 Attention should be paid that the screw provide transarticular facet fixation which may damage articular cartilages and secondary to the traumatic arthritis. Moreover it is always difficult in patients with comminuted articular facet.
Malunited fracture sites and degenerative arthritis or traumatic arthritis changes to the fourth and fifth TMT joints can be revealed in radiographs.
K-wire fixation has the advantages of less damage to the articular surface and lower incidence of traumatic arthritis. The elastic fixation can help to keep the ROM of the fourth and fifth TMT joints, which will preserve the normal biomechanics of the midfoot as far as possible.
He subsequently developed post traumatic arthritis and underwent an uncomplicated hybrid total hip replacement two years later.
Objective: To explore the treatment strategies and clinical effect of the acetabular malunion with traumatic arthritis by total hip arthroplasty.
Methodology: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 47 cases of acetabular malunion with traumatic arthritis from June 2000 to December 2009.