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1. Psychol a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects
2. Pathol any bodily injury or wound



an externally caused injury to the human or animal organism. Depending on its cause, a trauma may be classified as mechanical, chemical, or thermal (as in burns or frostbite), as a barotrauma (caused by abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure), as an electrotrauma, or as a combination of types of traumas—for example, a mechanical trauma combined with a burn. Depending on the duration of the traumatic event, a trauma may be either acute or chronic. Traumas may also be classified according to the circumstances in which they occur—for example, nonoccupational injuries, industrial accidents, or injuries resulting from athletic activity or military combat.

A mechanical trauma may be an open wound, or it may be a closed injury, with the skin remaining intact; it may be uncomplicated, or it may develop such complications as suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, or traumatic toxicosis; it may be isolated (that is, limited to one organ or part of an extremity) or extensive (with injury to several organs or parts); or it may involve a combination of simultaneous injuries to the internal organs and the muscu-loskeletal system. Specific types of traumas are contusions, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, and ruptures. They may be accompanied by hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, or necrosis (gangrene) of the tissues. Severe and extensive traumas are accompanied by shock and may be fatal. A special type is psychic trauma—a term denoting an emotional shock, and particularly one due to traumatic verbal activity. Psychic traumas may lead to morbid reactions in the psychic and autonomic systems, such as depression and neurosis.

Timely first aid and treatment may prevent severe posttraumatic complications. The various types of traumas are treated by appropriate medical specialists.


See references under and .



An injury caused by a mechanical or physical agent.
A severe psychic injury.
References in periodicals archive ?
Andreasen, "Periodontal healing after replantation of traumatically avulsed human teeth: assessment by mobility testing and radiography," Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol.
Among various compartments, abomasum appears more common to become fistulated traumatically followed by rumen (Deviprasad et al., 2014).
His career as a diplomat began traumatically: the new King Khaled named him as FM following the assassination of Prince Saud's father Faisal, who had retained the foreign affairs portfolio after being made king in 1962.
His career as a diplomat began traumatically: the new King Khaled named him as foreign minister following the assassination of Prince Saud's father Faisal, who had retained the foreign affairs portfolio after being made king in 1962.
2011) A wide range of treatment options can be proposed as solutions for the replacement of a traumatically missing anterior permanent incisor.
In the case of traumatically based postmemories, enormous distances must be spanned and, Hirsch explains, "in the specific case of catastrophic memory--such as the memory of slavery or the Holocaust--that distance cannot ultimately be bridged; the break between then and now, between the one who lived it and the one who did not remains monumental and insurmountable, even as the heteropathic imagination struggles to overcome it" (86).
According to rescue sources, the casualties were taken to a nearest hospital where the emergency room doctors declared four of the traumatically injured as critical.
Playing sports like soccer, basketball or volleyball can lead people to traumatically tear their anterior cruciate ligament, more commonly known as the ACL, during games or practices.
Existing research focusing on the experience of well siblings of children with traumatic injuries is sparse; further, there is no research about school-age siblings of traumatically injured children hospitalized for rehabilitative care.
Since traumatically regaining its independence from Indonesia in 1999, Timor-Leste has experienced a revival of its indigenous cultures.
He said the nuclear-armed neighbours, which were traumatically separated at the end of British rule in 1947 and have fought three wars since, should together rid their region of the instability that has plagued them for decades.