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1. Psychol a powerful shock that may have long-lasting effects
2. Pathol any bodily injury or wound



an externally caused injury to the human or animal organism. Depending on its cause, a trauma may be classified as mechanical, chemical, or thermal (as in burns or frostbite), as a barotrauma (caused by abrupt changes in atmospheric pressure), as an electrotrauma, or as a combination of types of traumas—for example, a mechanical trauma combined with a burn. Depending on the duration of the traumatic event, a trauma may be either acute or chronic. Traumas may also be classified according to the circumstances in which they occur—for example, nonoccupational injuries, industrial accidents, or injuries resulting from athletic activity or military combat.

A mechanical trauma may be an open wound, or it may be a closed injury, with the skin remaining intact; it may be uncomplicated, or it may develop such complications as suppuration, osteomyelitis, sepsis, or traumatic toxicosis; it may be isolated (that is, limited to one organ or part of an extremity) or extensive (with injury to several organs or parts); or it may involve a combination of simultaneous injuries to the internal organs and the muscu-loskeletal system. Specific types of traumas are contusions, sprains, dislocations, fractures, compression of tissues and internal organs, concussions, and ruptures. They may be accompanied by hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, or necrosis (gangrene) of the tissues. Severe and extensive traumas are accompanied by shock and may be fatal. A special type is psychic trauma—a term denoting an emotional shock, and particularly one due to traumatic verbal activity. Psychic traumas may lead to morbid reactions in the psychic and autonomic systems, such as depression and neurosis.

Timely first aid and treatment may prevent severe posttraumatic complications. The various types of traumas are treated by appropriate medical specialists.


See references under and .



An injury caused by a mechanical or physical agent.
A severe psychic injury.
References in periodicals archive ?
The replacement of a traumatically missing permanent anterior maxillary tooth can be performed by different treatment options.
Maybe features four very different, compelling women whose lives unexpectedly entwine as they center around the recovery process of 27-year-old Marla, whose life has been changed traumatically by divorce.
The AMSSM defines a concussion as "a traumatically induced transient disturbance of brain function .
She spent a gruelling 12 months in hospital and, traumatically, lost both of her legs in the process.
The global rhetoric is focused on the politics of PTSD, and human suffering is seen as psychopathology, objectifying a traumatically bereaved person's understandable distress (Summerfield, 2004).
Maybe he feels he needs to evolve less traumatically, so as not to ostracise too looke thi many of his players.
The widespread use of improvised explosive devices in these conflicts increases the likelihood that servicemembers will sustain a TBI, which the Department of Defense (DOD) defines as a traumatically induced structural injury and/or physiological disruption of brain function as a result of an external force.
In the late 1920s, X-ray technology was introduced, and not many years thereafter the proposition was made that many vertebral disks shown by X-ray to be irregular were traumatically "ruptured" or "herniated.
Born in Maryland, the 27-year-old Raassi grew up in Iran, but moved back to the US in 2000 after what should have been a Sweet Sixteen visit ended traumatically.
In this book, he addresses those traumatically injured citizens who have become permanently disabled.
Like many effective safety techniques, use emotions sparingly and not traumatically.
This state is essentially different not only because of its projection and the processes that redefine the world, but even traumatically it is different from the concept of a state in the 19th century.