treaty

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treaty,

in international law, formal agreement between sovereign states or organizations of states. The term treaty is ordinarily confined to important formal agreements, while less formal international accords are called conventions, acts, declarations, or protocols.

A treaty ordinarily deals with the rights and duties of nations, but treaties may also grant specific rights to private individuals. Although treaties deal with a great variety of subjects, they are commonly classified under a few heads. Political treaties deal with (among other things) alliances, war, cessions of territory, and rectification of boundaries. Commercial treaties may govern fisheries, navigation, tariffs, and monetary exchange. Legal treaties concern extradition of criminals, patent and copyright protection, and the like.

Treaties are designed to regularize the intercourse of nations, and, as such, they are the source of most international law. In some countries treaties are a part of the law of the land and are binding upon all persons. In the United States the Supreme Court has held that a treaty automatically abrogates any state or federal statute in conflict with it.

Treaties have existed ever since states came into existence. Records survive of Mesopotamian treaties dating before 3000 B.C., and in the Old Testament many treaties are mentioned. The Greeks and the Romans had elaborate ceremonials to emphasize the sanctity of treaties, and many current treaty practices have classical antecedents.

Negotiation, Ratification, and Interpretation

A treaty is negotiated by duly accredited representatives of the executive branch of the government; for the United States negotiations are ordinarily conducted by officials of the Dept. of State under the authority of the President. The preliminaries are not usually open to the public, but the record of all protocolprotocol
, term referring to rules governing diplomatic conduct or to a variety of written instruments. Examples of the latter are authenticated minutes of international conferences; preliminary agreements, or statements of principle, which eventuate in a formal treaty; and
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 (i.e., the minutes) is preserved for use in case the treaty provisions require subsequent interpretation. Technical experts draft the text, which the government representatives then sign.

The treaty is next ratified by the signatory states in accordance with their regular practice. In the United States the Constitution requires that a treaty must be approved by two thirds of the Senate (executive agreements, however, which are undertaken through the President's powers and do not need the Senate's approval, account for a large number of the international agreements of the United States). It has been argued that such wartime agreements as those made by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at the Yalta ConferenceYalta Conference,
meeting (Feb. 4–11, 1945), at Yalta, Crimea, USSR, of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.
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 were in effect secret treaties. A treaty comes into effect when the ratifications are formally exchanged.

Members of the United Nations are required to register their treaties with that organization (following the like practice of the League of Nations), and a treaty that has not been registered may not be invoked before a UN agency. If treaties between UN members conflict with their obligations under the Charter of the United Nations, the Charter takes precedence.

The interpretation of treaties, like that of all legal documents, may present great difficulties. There is no tribunal with compulsory and final jurisdiction to interpret a treaty; parties may, however, voluntarily submit a dispute to the International Court of Justice (World Court) or the Permanent Court of Arbitration (Hague Tribunal).

Termination

Treaties may come to an end in various ways. Most provide for a date of expiration or a time at which notice to terminate must be given if the treaty is not to continue in effect for another specified period. Treaties terminate if one of the signatory states becomes politically extinct or (in the case of political treaties) if the parties are at war with one another. The outbreak of war need not necessarily bring a treaty to an end, however, and provisions compatible with a state of hostilities remain in force, as long as they are not expressly terminated. Treaties relating to the laws of war, of course, remain in effect during hostilities. A treaty may be terminated by mutual consent, and breach of a treaty by one party entitles the other to abrogate it.

Bibliography

See H. Blix, Treaty-making Power (1960); P. Reuter, Introduction to the Law of Treaties (1989); A. D. McNair, The Law of Treaties (rev. ed. 1986); J. A. Grenville and B. Wasserstein, The Major International Treaties Since 1945 (1988).

treaty

1. 
a. a formal agreement or contract between two or more states, such as an alliance or trade arrangement
b. the document in which such a contract is written
2. any international agreement
3. an agreement between two parties concerning the purchase of property at a price privately agreed between them
4. in Canada
a. any of the formal agreements between Indian bands and the federal government by which the Indians surrender their land rights in return for various forms of aid
b. (as modifier): treaty Indians
http://fletcher.tufts.edu/multilaterals.html
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History of treaties Government of Nepal has signed treaties with India on Koshi, Gandaki and Mahakali rivers (Tanakpur treaty, signed by government of GP Koirala, youngest Koirala brother, although called an understanding, precursor to Mahakali treaty, was repealed by Supreme Court of Nepal).
The Treaties Recognition Week Act, 2016 introduced and passed with the support of all parties today, designates the first week of November each year as Treaties Recognition Week.
The Constitution grants the President the power to make treaties by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
Citing the need for some kind of framework governing treaties, such as the obibleo--the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT)--the editors and contributors reflect on the VCLTAEs lack of comprehensiveness, and present chapters that address the substantive lacunae in the VCLT.
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Treaties between the Crown and Indigenous peoples are, according to Canadian jurisprudence, historical phenomena.
source payments of FDAP income to a foreign person is 30 percent, most, if not all, income tax treaties concluded by the United States reduce or even eliminate the U.
This approach would be in accord with the general (and original) purposes of bilateral treaties to promote crossborder trade and investments by eliminating double-taxation and to prevent illegal fiscal evasion.
The three-day gathering was aimed at creating opportunities for Numbered Treaty Nations to work with the Crown to see the full implementation of treaties in the spirit and intent originally envisioned by the ancestors.
The negotiations of modern treaties such as the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (1975), Nunavut Territory (19931999), and the Nisga'a Treaty (1996-2000) have been the subject of intense debate over legal, political, constitutional, economic and environmental issues.
It provides that the President "shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur.
Daniel Hannan, a eurosceptic Conservative member of the European Parliament, said if the Conservatives took power with the Lisbon treaty already in force, then Britain should seek a "unilateral repatriation of power", going beyond the powers conferred by the Lisbon treaty to reclaim for Britain powers ceded to Brussels in previous treaties.