treaty port


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treaty port,

port opened to foreign trade by a treaty. The term is usually confined to ports in those countries that formerly strongly objected to foreign trade or attempted altogether to exclude it. Thus it is used especially in reference to Japan and China. Those countries had admitted trade with the West in the 16th cent. but soon reversed themselves, with Japan permitting only a trickle of Dutch commerce through Nagasaki, and China shutting off all trade until the opening of Guangzhou in 1834. Great Britain, determined to increase commerce, provoked the first of the Opium WarsOpium Wars,
1839–42 and 1856–60, two wars between China and Western countries that marked the shift of wealth and power from East to West. The first was between Great Britain and China. Early in the 19th cent.
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 with China. The Treaty of Nanjing (1842), which restored peace, provided for five treaty ports—Xiamen, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Ningbo, and Shanghai. As in all the 69 Chinese treaty ports that were finally opened, zones were established for foreign residence that enjoyed extraterritorialityextraterritoriality
or exterritoriality,
privilege of immunity from local law enforcement enjoyed by certain aliens. Although physically present upon the territory of a foreign nation, those aliens possessing extraterritoriality are considered by customary
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. Most of the ports were on the seacoast or on large rivers. A similar system came into being in Japan after the country was reopened to Western trade by Matthew Perry in 1854. With the abolition of extraterritoriality, the system of treaty ports also disappeared. This occurred in 1899 in Japan but not until 1946 in China.

Bibliography

See J. K. Fairbank, Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842–1854 (1953, repr. 1969).

References in periodicals archive ?
The treaty ports were glittering islands of modernity, but the character of other Chinese cities did not improve, and those which had been damaged by the massive Taiping rebellion of 1850-64 had deteriorated.
Conclusions about the real economic impact on China of the treaty port system are still the subject of argument, but clearly the modern city of Shanghai grew up around, and because of, the foreign self-administered enclaves at its centre (Map 1).
The first section explores Shanghai from the arrival of the first consuls to the revolution of 1911, considering not only the establishment of the treaty port, but also the establishment of the treaty port system.
After their departure, Burns left for the Presbyterian mission field in the treaty port of Xiamen in Fujian province, but his departure did not end the Presbyterian plan to begin mission work in Chaozhou.
In an opening chapter on the early commerce in tea at Canton, and in the treaty ports after 1842, Yen-p'ing Hao demonstrates that for the period 180.
Weihaiwei, until 1894 the base of the hapless Chinese northern fleet, was for all its limitations the only anchorage north of the Yangtze not in foreign hands or off limits to Chinese military installations due to treaty port status.
Certainly his view that treaty port and hinterland were not "two worlds,' as asserted in an influential work by Rhoads Murphey of the University of Michigan, has many supporters.
Begun in 1892 on the hill slopes behind the Shandong treaty port of Chefoo (Yantai), the Chang Yu Pioneer Wine Company was one of the first Chinese enterprises to produce and market an ostensibly Western line of consumer products.
By 1900 British interests still formed the largest sector of the overall foreign presence, but the treaty port world was international, and most favoured nation clauses were granted to all who had signed treaties with China.
Part 1, "In Search of an Urban Identity," provides an overview of the dramatic growth and the changing composition of the population of Shanghai in the century following its designation as a treaty port in 1842.
Even before its opening as a treaty port in 1842, Shanghai was already exporting its cotton textiles, especially its "Nankeen" textiles to the west through Guangzhou.
In the first, the politics of place, 1839-1919, she presents an overview of the city's development as a treaty port following the first Opium War to the eve of the birth of radical working class politics that followed the anti-Japanese patriotic movement of 4 May 1919.