trench warfare


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trench warfare.

Although trenches were used in ancient and medieval warfare, in the American Civil War, and in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–5), they did not become important until World War I. The introduction of rapid-firing small armssmall arms,
firearms designed primarily to be carried and fired by one person and, generally, held in the hands, as distinguished from heavy arms, or artillery. Early Small Arms

The first small arms came into general use at the end of the 14th cent.
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 and artillery made the infantry charges of earlier wars virtually impossible, and the war became immobile, with the contenders digging thousands of miles of opposing trenches fronted by barbed wire. To break the stalemate various methods and new weapons were tried; tremendous artillery barrages sought to devastate the enemy and blow a gap in his trenches; trench mortars, hand grenades, poison gas, and tanks were used. It nevertheless remained a war of attrition, with artillery duels and infantry attacks behind creeping artillery barrages. The idea of an uninterrupted line defense held the imagination of the French and German general staffs between the two world wars, and they built lines of field fortifications known as the Maginot Line and the Siegfried Line. The advent of mechanized warfaremechanized warfare,
employment of modern mobile attack and defense tactics that depend upon machines, more particularly upon vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel engines.
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 made it possible to circumvent such defenses, and World War II was a war of movement. However, in the last stages of the Korean war both sides established fortified positions across the Korean peninsula, and a stalemated situation similar to that of World War I came into play.

Bibliography

See L. Wolff, In Flanders Fields: The 1917 Campaign (1958).

References in periodicals archive ?
Even once in Britain, they learned very little beyond preliminaries of trench warfare. In Dinesen's case, he would receive the Victoria Cross for his agility with a bayonet that he learned at the front.
"We all agree on that, so I ask each and every one of you, accept the decision of the members, end the trench warfare and work together to take on the Tories.
The Allies' original plan was for an attack on three European fronts in a bid to end years of sapping trench warfare.
Yet even here, as in each chapter, he effectively articulates that World War I was more than just trench warfare. The editors of this text make it clear that this work is merely a starting point for a larger discussion of the importance of 1918, but it is an important step.
Regarding the actual scenes in the trenches, the expert described them as "astonishing - the most accurate depiction of trench warfare in fiction.
Bonus features include a 12-page viewer's guide and map, an overview of WW I, and articles on trench warfare, the suffragist movement, and WW I poets.
WORLD WAR I | BATTLE OF THE SOMME | DESERTION | TRENCH WARFARE | HISTORICAL FICTION
These are behind the lines games organised to relieve tension and provide brief diversions from the trench warfare. Jack's progress, mentally and physically, through the war becomes a personally exciting tale with his teammates becoming comrades and figuring largely throughout.
In the same way that the Nazi blitzkrieg made trench warfare redundant, the military and economic dominance of the West could be destroyed by an organised cyber attack.
Ellie Harrison reveals the iron harvest of bombs still unearthed by farmers today, Tom Heap goes on a personal investigation to the start of trench warfare, John Craven reveals how tractors were adapted to make the world's first tanks and Adam Henson discovers how man's best friend became his greatest ally when dogs were trained for front-line duties by the British army.
Personal views of famed war poets such as Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen are revealed in the Screaming Steel exhibition, alongside those of artists from the German trenches, similarly traumatised by trench warfare. Screaming Steel: Art, War and Trauma 1914-18 explores "their response to the killing fields of Europe which resulted in some our most important 20th Century art and literature", say organisers.
TRENCH warfare has become a powerful symbol of the futility of war and a damning reminder of the bleak conditions suffered by thousands of men - many who then went on to die.