Trepanation


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Trepanation

 

(also trephination), in medicine, the surgical section of the medullary cavity of a bone. The operation is performed with special instruments, including a trephine (or crown saw), forceps, and gouges. In former usage, “trepanation” referred only to the surgical opening of the cranial cavity to remove a brain tumor or hematoma, for example, or to apply a ligature to an injured vessel. In modern medical practice, trepanation is also performed on the tubular bones in cases of osteomyelitis, and on the mastoid in mastoiditis. Dental trepanation is the surgical formation of an opening through the gum and bone of a tooth. Corneal trepanation is the surgical cutting of the sclera. Trepanation is also used for the withdrawal of bone marrow for examination, as in sternal biopsy.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
It can also be associated with respiratory infections, trepanations or fractures with frontal sinus exposure, cysts or nasal cancer (SMITH, 2006).
This wide-spread surgical practice since the Mesolithic (3) is certified by the trepanation procedures discovered throughout the world, including in Europe and the Mediterranean Sea, North America, Africa and Australia, the most common practice being found in archaeological sites from Andes and Mesoamerica (4).
Other evidence, in addition to the risky and unusual location of trepanation holes, points to ritual skull surgeries in southwestern Russia, Gresky says.
"Historically, trepanation was used for treating several symptoms and disorders, such as cranial injuries, high intracranial pressure, convulsions, and high fever - all three of which are also caused by eclampsia," Alba Pasini, a co-author of the study and a researcher from the Department of Biomedical and Specialty Surgical Sciences at University of Ferrara, said in an (https://gizmodo.com/dead-medieval-woman-gave-birth-to-baby-in-coffin-1824075693) interview with Gizmodo.
Mainly it is a trepanation which permits access to the frontal and to the temporal lobe as well as the Sylvian fissure (18, 19).
Trepanation (drilling or scraping a hole in the skull) is the (http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/themes/surgery) oldest form of surgery we know of.
warren.manger@mirror.co.uk 1 HOLE IN HEAD British artist Amanda Feilding once performed a trepanation on herself, drilling a hole in her skull, as part of a short art film entitled Heartbeat Of The Brain.