Trepanation

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Trepanation

 

(also trephination), in medicine, the surgical section of the medullary cavity of a bone. The operation is performed with special instruments, including a trephine (or crown saw), forceps, and gouges. In former usage, “trepanation” referred only to the surgical opening of the cranial cavity to remove a brain tumor or hematoma, for example, or to apply a ligature to an injured vessel. In modern medical practice, trepanation is also performed on the tubular bones in cases of osteomyelitis, and on the mastoid in mastoiditis. Dental trepanation is the surgical formation of an opening through the gum and bone of a tooth. Corneal trepanation is the surgical cutting of the sclera. Trepanation is also used for the withdrawal of bone marrow for examination, as in sternal biopsy.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Approximately 6 months later, the toucan was presented for the recommended sinus trephination and sinoscopy procedure.
Rasping, shaving, trephination, and synovial fold abrasion should be used liberally and aggressively to enhance the healing potential of the repair.
Preconquest peruvian neurosurgeons: A study of Inca and Pre-Columbian trephination and the art of medicine in ancient Peru.
Furthermore, there have been a lopsided number of cases of trephination for subdural hematomas.
Incision and trephination were performed; pathologic examination after orthopedic intramedullary placement is shown in Figure 5.
Based on carbon-14 dating, the oldest example of trephination was discovered in the Ukraine and is dated as 7300 B.C., while a carbon-14 study from France has reported skulls trephined in 5100 B.C.
First, trephination of the skull to allow advancement of the vascular supply from the meninges to the granulation bed of the dorsal skull.
By pulling the torn flaps peripherally and skipping the trephination stage of the graft preparation technique described by Melles et al., (3,4) these irregular-edged grafts can still be successfully implanted.
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common clinical entities encountered in daily neurosurgical practice.1-5 The incidence of CSDH has been reported to be as high as 13.1 cases per 100000 inhabitants.6 The condition is treated by various surgical procedures including burr-hole trephination, twist-drill trephination and craniotomy.7-10 Of these procedures, burrhole evacuation is the most popular technique worldwide.1,6,7 However, considerable recurrence rates have been reported ranging from 3 to 30% following surgical management.7,9,11,12
Furthermore, needling, rasping, or trephination to promote vessel ingrowth into damaged meniscus by puncturing healthy tissue is frequently and successfully used in meniscus surgery [75, 76].
Trephination Size Graft Size Total Survived Failed Survival % Less than 7 -- -- -- -- mm 7-8 mm 38 21 15 55.26 More than 02 -- 02 -- 8 mm Table 5.