Trepanation

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Trepanation

 

(also trephination), in medicine, the surgical section of the medullary cavity of a bone. The operation is performed with special instruments, including a trephine (or crown saw), forceps, and gouges. In former usage, “trepanation” referred only to the surgical opening of the cranial cavity to remove a brain tumor or hematoma, for example, or to apply a ligature to an injured vessel. In modern medical practice, trepanation is also performed on the tubular bones in cases of osteomyelitis, and on the mastoid in mastoiditis. Dental trepanation is the surgical formation of an opening through the gum and bone of a tooth. Corneal trepanation is the surgical cutting of the sclera. Trepanation is also used for the withdrawal of bone marrow for examination, as in sternal biopsy.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Focal epilepsy: Trephining and removal of a small hemorrhagic focus.
An emergency treatment for a subdural hematoma is drilling a burr hole into the skull to allow drainage of the blood--known in medical jargon as trephining. While researching this procedure, I chanced to meet a colleague who is a scholar of medical history.
You'll learn about trephining drills used long ago to open holes in the human skull and CT and MRI scans that allow modern-day doctors to look inside the body without any cuts or holes.
The root of polyp was approached by trephining on dorsolateral aspect of nasal bone and pedunculated polyp growth was extirpated from nasal cavity (Fig1,2,3).