Tribe

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tribe

[Lat., tribus: the tripartite division of Romans into Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans], a social group bound by common ancestry and ties of consanguinityconsanguinity
, state of being related by blood or descended from a common ancestor. This article focuses on legal usage of the term as it relates to the laws of marriage, descent, and inheritance; for its broader anthropological implications, see incest.
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 and affinity; a common language and territory; and characterized by a political and economic organization intermediate between small, familyfamily,
a basic unit of social structure, the exact definition of which can vary greatly from time to time and from culture to culture. How a society defines family as a primary group, and the functions it asks families to perform, are by no means constant.
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-based bands, and larger chiefdoms. Some anthropologists believe that tribes developed when more stable and increased economic productivity, brought on by the domestication of plants and animals, allowed more people to live together in a smaller area. A tribe may consist of several villagesvillage,
small rural population unit, held together by common economic and political ties. Based on agricultural production, a village is smaller than a town and has been the normal unit of community living in most areas of the world throughout history.
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, which may be cross-cut by clansclan,
social group based on actual or alleged unilineal descent from a common ancestor. Such groups have been known in all parts of the world and include some that claim the parentage or special protection of an animal, plant, or other object (see totem).
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, age gradeage grade and age set,
differentiation of social role based on age, commonly found in small-scale societies of North America and East Africa.
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 associations, and secret societies; each of these cross-cutting institutions may, at different times and in different ways, perform economic, political, legal, and religious functions. Tribes are popularly believed to be close-knit and parochial, but some anthropologists now argue that they are flexibly defined communities of convenience. They have observed that there has been as much marriage between tribes as within, that members of many tribes may speak the same language and that members of any one tribe may speak different languages, and finally that all members of a given tribe rarely—if ever—unite in any important political or economic activity. Anthropologists have noted that every known tribe has been in contact with states, and suggest that tribal institutions may be adaptations to the greater state power, or direct consequences of the activities of states.

Tribe

 

a type of ethnic community or social organization in a preclass society. The fundamental characteristics of tribes are consanguinity and division into clans and phratries. Other characteristics include a common territory; economic communalism among tribesmen, which manifests itself in collective hunting and mutual aid; a single tribal language or dialect; tribal self-identification and self-naming; and tribal endogamy.

Tribes with a highly developed clan structure also practice tribal self-government through a tribal council and military and civil chieftains. Tribal cults and festivals are characteristic of this stage. The most widely accepted view is that tribes originated simultaneously with clans because clan exogamy presupposes permanent economic, cultural, and above all marital ties between at least two clans; some scholars believe that tribes developed somewhat later than clans. The Australian aborigines are an ethnographic example of the early stage of tribal development, while the North American Indians exemplify a later stage of development.

Tribes exist generally until the transition to a class society. The transition is preceded by the stratification of wealth, the rise of a tribal aristocracy, the expansion of the role of military chieftains, and the development of tribal alliances. Tribal vestiges may continue to exist in a class society and become integrated with the social relations characteristic of slaveholding, feudal, or capitalist societies. Examples of tribes that live in a class society are the Tuareg, Kurdish, Afghan, and nomadic Arab tribes.

REFERENCE

Engels, F. “Proiskhozhdenie sem’i, chastnoi sobstvennosti i gosu-darstva.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 21.
Morgan, L. H. Drevnee obshchestvo. Leningrad, 1934. (Translated from English.)
Butinov, N. A. “O pervobytnoi lingvisticheskoi nepreryvnosti v Av-stralii.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1951, no. 2.
Kosven, M. O. “Ob istoricheskom sootnoshenii roda i plemeni.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1951, no. 2.
Formozov, A. A. “O vremeni i istoricheskikh usloviiakh slozheniia ple-mennoi organizatsii.” Sovetskaia arkheologiia, 1957, no. 1.
Pershits, A. I. “Plemia, narodnost’ i natsiia v Saudovskoi Aravii.” Sovetskaia etnografiia, 1961, no. 5.
Tokarev, S. A. “Problema tipov etnicheskikh obshchnostei.” Voprosy filosofii, 1964, no. 11.
Bromlei, Iu. V. Etnos i etnografiia. Moscow, 1973.

L. A. FAINBERG


Tribe

 

(Latin tribus). (1) In ancient Rome, a group of people corresponding to the ancient Greek phyle. According to tradition, Rome’s earliest populace consisted of three tribes: the Ramnes (Latins), the Tities (Sabines), and the Luceres (Etruscans). Each tribe originally comprised 100 clans; the number later grew to 300 clans. These tribes constituted the Roman people.

(2) In ancient Rome, a territorial and electoral district that had one vote in the Tribal Assembly (comitia tributa). According to tradition, these tribes were formed in the sixth century B.C. by Servius Tullius, who divided the Roman territory into four urban and 17 rural tribes. During the subsequent conquest of Italy, the number of tribes rose to 35.

REFERENCE

Nemirovskii, A. I. Istoriia rannego Rima i Italii. Voronezh, 1962.

Tribe

 

a taxonomic category in the systematics of plants and animals, ranking below the subfamily and above the genus. Tribes unite closely related genera: for example, the tribe Triticeae comprises Agropyron (wheatgrass), Triticum (wheat), Sécale (rye), Hordeum (barley), and other related cereal genera. In bot any the Latin names of tribes end in -eae, for example, Nardeae and Oryzeae. In zoology the ending -ini is used, for example, Braconini. Large tribes are sometimes divided into subtribes (subtribus).

tribe

1. a social division of a people, esp of a preliterate people, defined in terms of common descent, territory, culture, etc.
2. an ethnic or ancestral division of ancient cultures, esp of one of the following
a. any of the three divisions of the ancient Romans, the Latins, Sabines, and Etruscans
b. one of the later political divisions of the Roman people
c. any of the 12 divisions of ancient Israel, each of which was named after and believed to be descended from one of the 12 patriarchs
d. a phyle of ancient Greece
3. Biology a taxonomic group that is a subdivision of a subfamily
References in periodicals archive ?
The fundamental problem with a tribal society is that the decisions are taken collectively where the agreement of all or majority members of a tribe or a clan is not necessarily required.
The leadership in the Pashtun tribal society has always been a trusted and important institution, reserved for high calibre elders of the society (tribe).
Moreover, his war-time alliance with Abdul Ghaffur facilitated in transmitting his ideals to the tribal society.
Yemeni Jews complain of widespread discrimination and increasing harassment and aggression from the tribal society surrounding them.
Friends Of Tribal Society is a non-government, voluntary organization is committed to the upliftment of tribals and other deprived in rural India, by providing basic education to their children and giving the villagers health care education, development education and empowerment education.
Perhaps he could be a shaman in a tribal society somewhere.
It was the Tudor reconquest of Ireland and also the introduction of religious differences that led to the mutual loathing between the Catholic and tribal society of the Irish and the Norman Old English families on one side and the nation states of Protestant England and Scotland on the other.
Meanwhile, the district coordination officer Atif Rahman said that generally speaking the people in Swat belonged to a tribal society and the family elders could prevail upon the militants to renounce militancy and surrender to authorities.
The status of women in tribal society was higher than in non-tribal society.
But the Bush administration's effort to establish a Western-style government in a tribal society that remains rooted in another century has been an abject failure.
Given this standing, Fares is a heavyweight within Iraq's Sunni tribal society and will exert strong influence among Iraq's Sunni Arabs.
Yemen, which is the ancestral home of Osama bin Laden, is the Middle East's poorest country and has been plagued by instability and rebellions for years, with the government unable to extend its authority across the whole of the tribal society.

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