As a result of this phaseout, which began in 2001, the use of alternative fumigants such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane
) has increased (CDPR 2009).
Of the HNMs, trichloronitromethane ([Cl.sub.3]CN[O.sub.2], chloropicrin, TCNM) is the most common, being formed in disinfected waters containing nitrite [9-11].
Absolute rate constants for the free-radical-induced degradation of trichloronitromethane were determined using electron pulse radiolysis and transient absorption spectroscopy.
Bader, "The formation of trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin) and chloroform in a combined ozonation/chlorination treatment of drinking water," Water Research, vol.
Arnold, "Degradation of trichloronitromethane by iron water main corrosion products," Water Research, vol.
Arnold, "Effects of dissolved oxygen and iron aging on the reduction of trichloronitromethane, trichloracetonitrile, and trichloropropanone," Chemosphere, vol.