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trichomoniasis(trĭk'əmənī`əsĭs), sexually transmitted diseasesexually transmitted disease
(STD) or venereal disease,
term for infections acquired mainly through sexual contact. Five diseases were traditionally known as venereal diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, and the less common granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, and
..... Click the link for more information. caused by the parasitic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. In women, it can cause urinary tract infection and a painful, malodorous vaginitis marked by a thin, foamy, irritating discharge. In men, it can infect the urethra and bladder. Most men have no noticeable symptoms, an important factor in its easy transmissibility. Trichomoniasis has been linked to the birth of low birth weight or premature infants and may increase the risk of AIDSAIDS
or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,
fatal disease caused by a rapidly mutating retrovirus that attacks the immune system and leaves the victim vulnerable to infections, malignancies, and neurological disorders. It was first recognized as a disease in 1981.
..... Click the link for more information. virus transmission. The infection is treated with metronidazole (Flagyl) or tinidazole (Tindamax, Fasigyn).
an inflammatory disease of the urogenital organs of man and animals caused by trichomonads (parasites of the genus Trichomonas).
In man, the causative agent of trichomoniasis is the parasite T. vaginalis. The source of the disease is an infected individual or a carrier. Infection is caused mainly by sexual intercourse, and sometimes by using a common towel. The principal form of the disease is trichomonas vaginitis in women and urethritis in men. Symptoms include itching and a burning sensation in the region of the external genitalia, a discharge from the urethra, leukor-rhea, and acute pain during urination. In women, the mucosa of the uterocervical canal may be affected (cervicitis), and in man, the seminal vesicles, prostate, and epididymis. The symptoms of trichomoniasis vary with the stage of the disease (acute, subacute, or chronic) and with the site of the inflammation. The course is protracted and characterized by recurrences.
The diagnosis of trichomoniasis is based on the patient’s complaints and on detection of the causative agents. These are observed during microscopic examination of the sediment in specimens of urine, or of excretions obtained by curettage or irrigation of the vagina and urethra. Both sex partners are treated simultaneously with metronidazole according to a schedule prescribed by a physician. Intercourse during therapy is prohibited, and the genitalia must be kept scrupulously clean. The disease is prevented by observing the general precautions followed in the prevention of venereal disease.
REFERENCESBaksheev, N. S., and I. K. Padchenko. Mochepolovoi trikhomonoz u zhenshchin. Moscow, 1971.
Semenov, P. P., and V. P. Semenov. Trikhomonadnyeporazheniia mochepolovykh organov cheloveka. Leningrad, 1972.
A. P. KIRIUSHCHENKOV
In animals, trichomoniasis occurs mainly in cattle, and occasionally in poultry. The causative agent in cattle is Trichomonas foetus, which infests the sexual organs. Infection takes place during mating. In cows, the disease is manifested by endometritis, miscarriages, and sterility; in bulls, it is marked by inflammation of the penis and decreased capacity for mating. Bulls that have recovered from the disease are frequently carriers. Furazolidone and carbachol are among the drugs used for treatment. The disease is prevented by isolating and treating affected animals and by inseminating cows artificially.
In poultry, the causative agents of trichomoniasis invade the digestive tract, liver, and other organs. The young of chickens, turkeys, guinea fowls, and ducks are most frequently infected. Metronidazole and acetarsone are used for treatment. The disease is prevented by raising young fowls in isolation and by including trichomonacides in the feed.