Trichoptera

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Related to trichopteran: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Raphidioptera

Trichoptera

[trə′käp·tə·rə]
(invertebrate zoology)
The caddis flies, an aquatic order of the class Insecta; larvae are wormlike and adults have two pairs of well-veined hairy wings, long antennae, and mouthparts capable of lapping only liquids.

Trichoptera

 

(caddis flies), an order of aquatic insects that undergo complete metamorphosis. Caddis flies have two pairs of wings with reduced venation, one pair of filiform antennae, and poorly developed mouth organs. The body and wings are covered with hairs; the coloration is brown or yellowish brown. The body length is 1.5–25 mm, and the wingspread is 5–70 mm. Of the approximately 5,500 species of caddis flies, about 600 are found in the USSR.

Caddis flies have an interesting life cycle. Annular, cylindrical, or discoid gelatinous egg-clutches are deposited on underwater plants and rocks. After hatching, the larvae move about the bottom and soon start feeding and constructing cases or snaring nets. They molt four to six times. The campodeiform larvae of the suborder Annulipalpia have flattened abdomens and deep strangulations between body segments. The majority, mostly predators, live freely without cases; they construct snaring nets (Polycentropus), funnels (Neureclipsis), or chambers (Hydropsyche). The caterpillar-like larvae of the suborder Integ-ripalpia have cylindrical abdomens and superficial strangulations between body segments. They live in cases made from mineral or vegetable particles; the cases are in the form of tubes or, less frequently, little caverns.

Before pupation, the larvae of all species of caddis flies build themselves a case with openings for water circulation. At first the pupa lives in the case, but later it gnaws through the top with its mandibles and swims to the surface. It swims by mean of its second pair of long legs. The pupa finally crawls out of the water and is transformed into the adult fly.

The larvae of caddis flies live in the clear waters of lakes, rivers, and streams. Hence, they serve as indicators of water quality. Adults stay near the water, amid vegetation. The larvae are important as food for whitefish, grayling, European bream, tench, Eurasian perch, ides, and other fishes that feed on benthos.

REFERENCES

Martynov, A. V. “Rucheiniki.” In Prakticheskaia entomologiia, fasc. 5. Leningrad, 1924.
Lepneva, S. G. Lichinki i kukolki podotriada kol’chatoshchupikovykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964. (Fauna SSSR: Rucheiniki, vol. 2, fasc. 1.)
Lepneva, S. G. Lichinki i kukolki podotriada tsel’noshchupikovykh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1966. (Fauna SSSR: Rucheiniki, vol. 2, fasc. 2.)
Kachalova, O. L. Rucheiniki rek Latvii. Riga, 1972.

O. L. KACHALOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
For an in-depth description of the morphology of an adult trichopteran head see [58]; [25] provides a lateral photograph of a trichopteran head with a short haustellum and palps similar to those seen in the holotype of A.
The stressed habitats consisting of drifting algae in the Neva estuary were colonized by eurybiotic taxa (chironomids, oligochaetes, hirudineans), locally adapted populations of stenobiotic species of trichopterans and ephemeropterans, typical of the studied habitat, as well as some recently introduced species of amphipods (Gmelinoides fasciatus, Pontogammarus robustoides).
- 1, early instar trichopteran larvae - 27; COLEOPTERA: Stenelmis sp.
In Missouri and Indiana, lepidopterans were most important in the diet, followed by coleopterans, trichopterans, and dipterans (Brack and Whitaker 2001).
Also in Indiana, Brack (1985) found dipterans, trichopterans, coleopterans (including the Asiatic oak weevil), lepidopterans, homopterans, hymenopterans, neuropterans, and plecopterans represented, in decreasing order of importance, in the diet of this species.
In Lake Titicaca, Lake Tanganyika, and Lake Baikal there are pelagic flightless trichopterans that have adopted the habits of the gyrinid coleopterans, which are very different.
Brachycentrid larvae were also consumed at similar levels of consumption as chironomid larvae with a peak at midafternoon (1600 h) but were more consistent in the diets throughout all time periods (14.9%-34.1%) except mid-morning (0800 h), where brachycentrid larvae were not present Slimy Sculpin preyed on other dipterans, trichopterans, and ephemeropterans throughout the day but at lower intensities.
Inorganic material consisted of pebbles, sand grains, and larval cases of insects that incorporated sand grains and pebbles (e.g., trichopterans including Hydroptilidae).
The presence of dipterous larvae and filamentous green algae was evident during the dry months, while invertebrates as trichopterans, plecopterans, copepods and ostracods occurred during the rainy months.
Abstract.-This study provides an update to the endemic biota of Arkansas by adding 19 species to the state list, including two fungi, three gastropods, one araneid, two opilionids, two pseudoscorpions, one diplopod, three collembolans, two trichopterans, one coleopteran, one dipteran and one hymenopteran.
The bats switched to coleopterans, trichopterans, lepidopterans and a variety of other items during the summer, then again fed on chironomids, including even pupae, in the fall.
Larger individuals (2.0-3.0 mm HCW) primarily ate Baetis tricaudatus Dodds and Ephemerella subvaria McDunnough nymphs, as well as chironomids and some trichopterans. Diatoms and MIP were ingested also, but in smaller quantities.