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Reverse circulation of blood in the heart due to defective functioning of the valves.
Bringing back into the mouth undigested food from the stomach.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Many of the early materialization mediums were accused of fraud, with the explanation that the ectoplasm that they produced was, in fact, physical material that they had swallowed and then regurgitated. This theory was first propounded in 1922 by the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in the case of Eva C.. The medium Eva Carriere was visiting London and being investigated by the SPR. Professor Charles Richet said, “They [the SPR] admit that the only possible trickery is regurgitation. But what is meant by that? How can masses of mobile substance, organized as hands, faces, and drawings, be made to emerge from the oesophagus or the stomach? … How, when the medium’s hands are tied and held, could papers be unfolded, put away and made to pass through a veil?"

At a séance on November 26, 1913, conducted by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing, a strong emetic was given to Eva to answer the charge that the ectoplasm was actually regurgitated material. It satisfied the researchers that she had swallowed nothing. A number of experiments took place at Dr. Gustav Geley’s laboratories in 1917 and 1918. Nearly 150 scientists and others witnessed the sittings.

To state that the medium had “obviously regurgitated material” became a typical dismissal of a medium’s performance by a researcher either too lazy to fully investigate or too skeptical to accept what was being proven before his eyes. However, there certainly were fraudulent mediums who did swallow cheesecloth and similar material and attempt to regurgitate it to create an ectoplasmic effect. One such was Helen Duncan, who was examined by the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Following this, the Morning Post of July 14, 1931, carried an article claiming that Duncan had been caught out and exposed as a fraud. Researcher Harry Price called her “one of the cleverest frauds in the history of Spiritualism.” It transpired that the “ectoplasm” was in fact a composition of wood pulp and egg white, which she was able to swallow and then regurgitate. On July 17, the Light carried a followup article also branding her as a fraud and carrying a confession from her husband.


Fodor, Nandor: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. London: Arthurs Press, 1933
The International Survivalist Society:
Psychic News, #3754, June 19, 2004. Stansted, Essex
Leonard, Sue (ed): Quest For the Unknown—Life Beyond Death. Pleasantville: Reader’s Digest, 1992
The Spirit Book © 2006 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the present study, tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was found in 117 (58.5%) patients on ECHO, and Vineeth et al.
A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a normal ejection fraction of 60%, as well as severe tricuspid regurgitation. A vascular ultrasound revealed a bilobed pseudoaneurysm of the internal jugular vein (Figure 2) with an identifiable entrance point and a membrane that separated the two lobes (Figure 3).
Moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation was more common in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (28.9% versus 15.4%, p = 0.099) though the difference did not reach statistical significance, while PASP between the two groups was not significantly different.
Our patient also had a preexisting pansystolic murmur due to congenital VSD which mimicked the murmur produced by tricuspid regurgitation caused by TVE.
A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed pericardial effusion and moderate mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. It also demonstrated vegetation on mitral valve.
The echocardiogram for the 50-year-old patient in Case 1 revealed a mildly dilated left ventricle with normal systolic function, diastolic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, moderate tricuspid regurgitation, and mild pulmonary hypertension.
After diuresis an echo-Doppler study and cardiac catheterization confirm a dilated cardiomyopathy primarily involving the left-sided chambers, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 20% and moderate mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. Coronary arteriography shows normal arteries.
Associated mitral and/or tricuspid regurgitation is common owing to frequent involvement of the papillary muscles with tethering to the ventricular wall.
Mitralign is the only company to provide a direct transcatheter annuloplasty system designed to treat both functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) and tricuspid regurgitation (TR).
a privately held company that specialises in the development of innovative surgical and transcatheter valve repair and replacement devices for mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, HeartWare said.